Watch

wristwatchwatchesdigital watchwristwatcheswrist watchluxury watchwatch casedigital watcheswrist watchesdial
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.wikipedia
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Robert Hooke

HookeDr Robert HookeHooke, Robert
A great leap forward in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the addition of the balance spring to the balance wheel, an invention disputed both at the time and ever since between Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensHuygens, ChristiaanChristiaan
A great leap forward in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the addition of the balance spring to the balance wheel, an invention disputed both at the time and ever since between Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens.

Escapement

detent escapementCross-beat escapementduplex escapements
The first thing to be improved was the escapement. The verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, invented by Thomas Tompion in 1695 and further developed by George Graham in the 1720s.

George Graham (clockmaker)

George GrahamGraham
The verge escapement was replaced in quality watches by the cylinder escapement, invented by Thomas Tompion in 1695 and further developed by George Graham in the 1720s.

Elasticity (physics)

elasticityelasticelasticity theory
A major cause of error in balance wheel timepieces, caused by changes in elasticity of the balance spring from temperature changes, was solved by the bimetallic temperature compensated balance wheel invented in 1765 by Pierre Le Roy and improved by Thomas Earnshaw.

Thomas Earnshaw

Earnshaw
A major cause of error in balance wheel timepieces, caused by changes in elasticity of the balance spring from temperature changes, was solved by the bimetallic temperature compensated balance wheel invented in 1765 by Pierre Le Roy and improved by Thomas Earnshaw.

Lever escapement

escapement wheellever watchSilicon escapement wheel
The lever escapement was the single most important technological breakthrough, and was invented by Thomas Mudge in 1759 and improved by Josiah Emery in 1785, although it only gradually came into use from about 1800 onwards, chiefly in Britain.

Thomas Mudge (horologist)

Thomas MudgeMudgeThomas
The lever escapement was the single most important technological breakthrough, and was invented by Thomas Mudge in 1759 and improved by Josiah Emery in 1785, although it only gradually came into use from about 1800 onwards, chiefly in Britain.

Mass production

mass-producedmass-producemass-production
Although there was an attempt to modernise clock manufacture with mass production techniques and the application of duplicating tools and machinery by the British Watch Company in 1843, it was in the United States that this system took off.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Although there was an attempt to modernise clock manufacture with mass production techniques and the application of duplicating tools and machinery by the British Watch Company in 1843, it was in the United States that this system took off.

Aaron Lufkin Dennison

Dennison
Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company.

Massachusetts

MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company.

Interchangeable parts

interchangeableinterchangeabilityinterchangeability of parts
Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company.

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth
Elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an armed watch.

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester

Earl of LeicesterRobert DudleyLeicester
Elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an armed watch.

Empress Joséphine

JoséphineJosephineEmpress Josephine
The oldest surviving wristwatch (then described as a bracelet watch) is one made in 1806 and given to Joséphine de Beauharnais.

London

London, EnglandLondon, UKLondon, United Kingdom
The Garstin Company of London patented a "Watch Wristlet" design in 1893, but they were probably producing similar designs from the 1880s.

British Army

ArmyBritishBritish troops
Officers in the British Army began using wristwatches during colonial military campaigns in the 1880s, such as during the Anglo-Burma War of 1885.

Third Anglo-Burmese War

Burma 1885–87Burma expeditionThird Burma War
Officers in the British Army began using wristwatches during colonial military campaigns in the 1880s, such as during the Anglo-Burma War of 1885.

First Boer War

FirstBoer WarFirst Anglo-Boer War
During the First Boer War, the importance of coordinating troop movements and synchronizing attacks against the highly mobile Boer insurgents became paramount, and the use of wristwatches subsequently became widespread among the officer class.

Mappin & Webb

Mappin & Webb BuildingMappin and WebMappin and Webb
The company Mappin & Webb began production of their successful "campaign watch" for soldiers during the campaign at Sudan in 1898 and accelerated production for the Second Boer War a few years later.

Battle of Omdurman

OmdurmanKhartoumcampaign at the Sudan in 1898
The company Mappin & Webb began production of their successful "campaign watch" for soldiers during the campaign at Sudan in 1898 and accelerated production for the Second Boer War a few years later.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
The company Mappin & Webb began production of their successful "campaign watch" for soldiers during the campaign at Sudan in 1898 and accelerated production for the Second Boer War a few years later.

Hans Wilsdorf

Hans Wilsdorf moved to London in 1905 and set up his own business, Wilsdorf & Davis, with his brother-in-law Alfred Davis, providing quality timepieces at affordable prices; the company later became Rolex.

Trench warfare

trenchestrenchentrenchment
Service watches produced during the War were specially designed for the rigours of trench warfare, with luminous dials and unbreakable glass.