Water supply

waterworkswaterwater supplieswater workssupplywater sourcepublic water supplydrinking waterpiped watersupplying water
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.wikipedia
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Improved water source

basic waterimproved drinking waterimproved" water
In 2010, about 56% of the global population (5.9 billion people) had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells.
An improved water source (or improved drinking-water source or improved water supply) is a term used to categorize certain types or levels of water supply for monitoring purposes.

Water fluoridation

fluoridationfluoridatedfluoride
The water treatment steps include, in most cases, purification, disinfection through chlorination and sometimes fluoridation.
Water fluoridation is the controlled adjustment of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.

Water kiosk

In 2010, about 56% of the global population (5.9 billion people) had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells.
Where water supply in the network is intermittent, kiosks sometimes also have a water storage tank.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarypublic sanitation
A clean water supply—in particular, water that is not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation—is the single most important determinant of public health.
Wastewater (sewage) is only generated when piped water supply is available within the buildings or close to them.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Therefore, it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply, which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years), that is a non-renewable resource, and it is, rather, the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce, rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the earth.

Water supply and sanitation in Mexico

MexicoWater supply and sanitation in México
In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran).
Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas (88% to 93%) as well as in rural areas (50% to 74%) between 1990 and 2010.

Water supply and sanitation in Honduras

Honduras
In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran).
In 2003, a new framework law for water supply and sanitation was passed.

Water supply and sanitation in Panama

Panama
In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran).
Water supply and sanitation in Panama is characterized by relatively high levels of access compared to other Latin American countries.

Shower

showersshower curtainshower head
This includes several common residential end use purposes (in decreasing order) like toilet use, showers, tap (faucet) use, washing machine use, leaks, other (unidentified), baths, and dishwasher use.
The reinvention of reliable indoor plumbing around 1850 allowed free-standing showers to be connected to a running water source, supplying a renewable flow of water.

Water supply and sanitation in Uruguay

Uruguay
In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran).
Uruguay is the only country in Latin America that has achieved quasi-universal coverage of access to safe drinking water supply and adequate sanitation.

Standpipe (street)

standpipestandpipes
In 2010, about 56% of the global population (5.9 billion people) had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells.
In some Middle Eastern, Caribbean and North African countries a standpipe is used as a communal water supply for neighbourhoods which lack individual housing water service.

Water supply and sanitation in Colombia

Colombiawater sectorEmpresa de Acueducto de Bogotá
In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran).
In addition to issues of service coverage, Colombia’s water and sanitation sector faces issues of service quality.

Flush toilet

water closetflushing toiletWC
This includes several common residential end use purposes (in decreasing order) like toilet use, showers, tap (faucet) use, washing machine use, leaks, other (unidentified), baths, and dishwasher use.
In the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age (8th-16th centuries), cities had flush toilets connected to water supply and waste disposal sewer systems.

Water supply and sanitation in Latin America

Water and sanitation in Latin Americawater supply and sanitation sector in several Latin American and Caribbean countries
(for more details on regulatory agencies in Latin America, for example, please see Water and sanitation in Latin America and the regional association of water regulatory agencies ADERASA.
Even for those having access to water supply, poor quality of service is often experienced, in the form of intermittent supply, low pressure and poor drinking water quality.

Water supply and sanitation in Bolivia

Boliviawater supply issue
A few countries, such as Jordan and Bolivia, even have a Ministry of Water.
The quality of service in the majority of the country's water and sanitation systems is low.

Water scarcity

water crisiswater stresswater shortage
As Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange (2002) stated, "The water crisis that is affecting so many people is mainly a crisis of governance—not of water scarcity."
A mere 0.014% of all water on Earth is both fresh and easily accessible.

Concession (contract)

concessionconcessionsconcessionaire
An estimated 10 percent of urban water supply is provided by private or mixed public-private companies, usually under concessions, leases or management contracts.
Public services such as water supply may be operated as a concession.

Water supply and sanitation in Ecuador

Ecuador
In other countries responsibility for sector policy is entrusted to a Ministry of Environment (such as in Mexico and Colombia), to a Ministry of Health (such as in Panama, Honduras and Uruguay), a Ministry of Public Works (such as in Ecuador and Haiti), a Ministry of Economy (such as in German states) or a Ministry of Energy (such as in Iran).
In general, water service quality is low in Ecuador.

Spring supply

spring suppliesspring water source
In 2010, about 56% of the global population (5.9 billion people) had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells.

Thames Water

Thames Water AuthorityThames Water plcThames Water Utilities
The largest private water companies in the world are Suez and Veolia Environnement from France; Aguas de Barcelona from Spain; and Thames Water from the UK, all of which are engaged internationally (see links to website of these companies below).
Thames Water Utilities Ltd, known as Thames Water, is the monopoly private utility company responsible for the public water supply and waste water treatment in large parts of Greater London, Luton, the Thames Valley, Surrey, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Kent, and some other areas of the United Kingdom.

Remunicipalization

re-municipalizationremunicipalisation
In recent years, a number of cities have reverted to the public sector in a process called "remunicipalization".
Remunicipalisation commonly refers to the return of previously privatised water supply and sanitation services to municipal authorities.

Tap water

running waterindoor plumbingmunicipal water
This includes several common residential end use purposes (in decreasing order) like toilet use, showers, tap (faucet) use, washing machine use, leaks, other (unidentified), baths, and dishwasher use.
These restrict flow between 15 and 50%, aiding water conservation and reducing the burden on both water supply and treatment facilities.

Water purification

purificationwater purifierpurified
The water treatment steps include, in most cases, purification, disinfection through chlorination and sometimes fluoridation.
The Metropolis Water Act introduced the regulation of the water supply companies in London, including minimum standards of water quality for the first time.

Water metering

water metermeteringwater meters
In many developed countries water meters are used to measure the volume of water used by residential and commercial buildings that are supplied with water by a public water supply system.

Desalination

desalination plantwater desalinationdesalinization
Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations after appropriate treatment, including groundwater (aquifers), surface water (lakes and rivers), and the sea through desalination.