Water table

watertablegroundwater tableperched lakeground water tablegroundwater levelgroundwaterperched water tablewater-tablefreatic sheetfreshwater table
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.wikipedia
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Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterground
It may be visualized as the "surface" of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity.
The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table.

Lake

lacustrinefreshwater lakelakes
Springs, rivers, lakes and oases occur when the water table reaches the surface.
They form where there is no natural outlet, a high evaporation rate and the drainage surface of the water table has a higher-than-normal salt content.

Phreatic zone

zone of saturationhydraulic saturationsaturated
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. Below the water table, in the phreatic zone (zone of saturation), layers of permeable rock that yield groundwater are called aquifers. In less permeable soils, such as tight bedrock formations and historic lakebed deposits, the water table may be more difficult to define.
The phreatic zone, or zone of saturation, is the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturated with water.

Capillary fringe

Within an aquifer, the water table is rarely horizontal, but reflects the surface relief due to the capillary effect (capillary fringe) in soils, sediments and other porous media.
The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores.

Evapotranspiration

potential evapotranspirationevaporationevapotranspired
The water table may vary due to seasonal changes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration.
An exception is areas with high water tables, where capillary action can cause water from the groundwater to rise through the soil matrix to the surface.

Aquifer

aquifersaquitardunconfined aquifer
Below the water table, in the phreatic zone (zone of saturation), layers of permeable rock that yield groundwater are called aquifers. In less permeable soils, such as tight bedrock formations and historic lakebed deposits, the water table may be more difficult to define.
This hole is a crude well, the wet sand represents an aquifer, and the level to which the water rises in this hole represents the water table.

Watertable control

control the water tablewatertable depthdrainage
Watertable control
Watertable control is the practice of controlling the height of the water table by drainage.

Groundwater recharge

rechargegroundwater replenishmentaquifer recharge
Groundwater recharge
This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and is often expressed as a flux to the water table surface.

Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
Within an aquifer, the water table is rarely horizontal, but reflects the surface relief due to the capillary effect (capillary fringe) in soils, sediments and other porous media.
Irrigation, especially when it involves leakage from canals and overirrigation in the field, often raises the underlying water table.

Hydrogeology

hydrogeologicalhydrogeologistgeohydrology
Hydrogeology
Aquifers are broadly classified as being either confined or unconfined (water table aquifers), and either saturated or unsaturated; the type of aquifer affects what properties control the flow of water in that medium (e.g., the release of water from storage for confined aquifers is related to the storativity, while it is related to the specific yield for unconfined aquifers).

Overdrafting

groundwater depletionwater exploitationgroundwater extraction
Aquifer drawdown or overdrafting and the pumping of fossil water may be a contributing factor to sea-level rise.
Lowering of the water table, which makes water harder to reach streams and rivers.

Desert

desertsaridhigh desert
Fossil water is groundwater that has remained in an aquifer for several millennia and occurs mainly in deserts.
Leaching by ground water can extract ore minerals and redeposit them, according to the water table, in concentrated form.

Hydraulic head

headhydraulic gradientpressure head
The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0).

Atmospheric pressure

barometric pressureair pressurepressure
The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0).

Water level

gauge heightgage heightwater stage
The water table should not be confused with the water level in a deeper well.

Potentiometric surface

piezometric level
The elevation of the water in this deeper well is dependent upon the pressure in the deeper aquifer and is referred to as the potentiometric surface, not the water table.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
The water table may vary due to seasonal changes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. The groundwater may be from precipitation or from groundwater flowing into the aquifer.

River

riversriverineriparian
Springs, rivers, lakes and oases occur when the water table reaches the surface.

Oasis

oasesbasesdesert oasis
Springs, rivers, lakes and oases occur when the water table reaches the surface.

Sediment

sedimentssedimentarydregs
Within an aquifer, the water table is rarely horizontal, but reflects the surface relief due to the capillary effect (capillary fringe) in soils, sediments and other porous media.

Porous medium

porous mediaporous materialsporous material
Within an aquifer, the water table is rarely horizontal, but reflects the surface relief due to the capillary effect (capillary fringe) in soils, sediments and other porous media.

Vadose zone

vadoseunsaturated zonesaturated
A perched water table (or perched aquifer) is an aquifer that occurs above the regional water table, in the vadose zone.

Spring (hydrology)

springspringsspring water
Springs, rivers, lakes and oases occur when the water table reaches the surface.

Island

islandsIsland Groupoceanic island
On low-lying oceanic islands with porous soil, freshwater tends to collect in lenticular pools on top of the denser seawater intruding from the sides of the islands.

Fresh water

freshwaterfreshlimnic
On low-lying oceanic islands with porous soil, freshwater tends to collect in lenticular pools on top of the denser seawater intruding from the sides of the islands.