Water well

wellwellsborevillage pumpwater wellsboreswell waterWaterholebore waterboreholes
A well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, and or drilling to access liquid resources.wikipedia
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Qanat

falajkarezfoggara
Wells were first constructed at least eight thousand years ago and historically vary in construction from a simple scoop in the sediment of a dry watercourse to the qanats of Iran, and the stepwells and sakiehs of India.
A qanāt or kārīz is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking.

Aquifer

aquifersaquitardunconfined aquifer
The most common kind of well is a water well, to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Groundwater can be extracted using a water well.

Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterground
The most common kind of well is a water well, to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells.

Big Well (Kansas)

Big WellThe Big WellBig Well Museum
Woodingdean well, hand-dug between 1858 and 1862, is claimed to be the world's deepest hand-dug well at 1285 ft. The Big Well in Greensburg, Kansas is billed as the world's largest hand-dug well, at 109 ft deep and 32 ft in diameter.
The Big Well is a large historic water well in Greensburg, Kansas, United States.

Erkelenz

ImmerathImmerath (neu)Kückhoven
Wood-lined wells are known from the early Neolithic Linear Pottery culture, for example in Kückhoven (an outlying centre of Erkelenz), dated 5090 BC and Eythra, dated 5200 BC in Schletz (an outlying centre of Asparn an der Zaya) in Austria.
Near Kückhoven a wooden well was discovered in 1990 that belonged to a settlement of the Linear Pottery culture and had been built around 5,100 B.C. This makes it one of the oldest wooden structures in the world.

Pozzo di S. Patrizio

Saint Patrick's Wellwell of St Patrick
However, the Well of Joseph in the Cairo Citadel at 280 ft deep and the Pozzo di S. Patrizio (St.
The Pozzo di San Patrizio (English: "St. Patrick's Well") is a historic well in Orvieto, Umbria, central Italy.

Ranney collector

Commonly called a collector well but sometimes referred to by the trade name Ranney well or Ranney collector, this type of well involves sinking a caisson vertically below the top of the aquifer and then advancing lateral collectors out of the caisson and beneath the surface water body.
A Ranney Collector is a patented type of radial well used to extract water from an aquifer with direct connection to a surface water source like a river or lake.

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
Until recent centuries, all artificial wells were pumpless hand-dug wells of varying degrees of sophistication, and they remain a very important source of potable water in some rural developing areas where they are routinely dug and used today.
Nearly 4.2 billion people worldwide had access to tap water, while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps.

Drilling rig

oil rigsdrilling platformoil rig
The oldest form of drilling machinery is the cable tool, still used today.
Cable tool rigs are a traditional way of drilling water wells.

Pump

water pumppumpssteam pump
Until recent centuries, all artificial wells were pumpless hand-dug wells of varying degrees of sophistication, and they remain a very important source of potable water in some rural developing areas where they are routinely dug and used today. The well water is drawn by a pump, or using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically or by hand.
It was commonly installed over community water wells in the days before piped water supplies.

Pit latrine

pit toiletpit latrineslatrine
Most of the bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that contaminate well water comes from fecal material from humans and other animals, for example from on-site sanitation systems (such as pit latrines and septic tanks).
The distance from water wells and surface water should be at least 10 meters (32 feet) to decrease the risk of groundwater pollution.

Hydrogeology

hydrogeologicalhydrogeologistgeohydrology
The site of a well can be selected by a hydrogeologist, or groundwater surveyor.
Will the plume of effluent leaving my neighbor's septic system flow to my drinking water well?

Orvieto

Orvieto, ItalyOrvientani
Patrick's Well) built in 1527 in Orvieto, Italy, at 61 m deep by 13 m wide are both larger by volume.
Fearing that in the event of siege by Charles's troops the city's water might prove insufficient, he commissioned a spectacular 62 meter deep well, the Pozzo di S. Patrizio or "Well of St. Patrick".

Artesian aquifer

artesian wellartesianartesian wells
Deep or confined wells are sunk through an impermeable stratum into an aquifer that is sandwiched between two impermeable strata (aquitards or aquicludes). The majority of deep aquifers are classified as artesian because the hydraulic head in a confined well is higher than the level of the top of the aquifer. If the hydraulic head in a confined well is higher than the land surface it is a "flowing" artesian well (named after Artois in France).
A well drilled into such an aquifer is called an artesian well.

Bentonite

bentonite claybentoniticsodium bentonite
The annular space between the large bore hole and the smaller casing is filled with bentonite clay, concrete, or other sealant material.
Similar uses include making slurry walls, waterproofing of below-grade walls, and forming other impermeable barriers, e.g., to seal off the annulus of a water well, to plug old wells.

Groundwater pollution

groundwater contaminationgroundwatercontaminated groundwater
Cleanup of contaminated groundwater tends to be very costly.
Its advancing boundary, often called a plume edge, can intersect with groundwater wells or daylight into surface water such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife.

Groundwater remediation

bioventingbiospargingbioslurping
Effective remediation of groundwater is generally very difficult.
Globally, between 25 per cent and 40 per cent of the world's drinking water is drawn from boreholes and dug wells.

Annulus (well)

annulusannularannuli
Contamination of groundwater from surface and subsurface sources can usually be dramatically reduced by correctly centering the casing during construction and filling the casing annulus with an appropriate sealing material.
The annulus of an oil well or water well is any void between any piping, tubing or casing and the piping, tubing, or casing immediately surrounding it.

Baptist well drilling

Baptist well drilling
Baptist well drilling is a very simple, manual method to drill water wells.

Brick-lined well

brick lined wellbrick lined wellsDutch brick (well lining)
Brick-lined well
A brick-lined well is a hand-dug water well whose walls are lined with bricks, sometimes called "Dutch bricks" if they are trapezoidal or made on site.

Abraham's well

Abraham's well
Abraham's well is one of a number of historical wells at Beersheba, Israel.

Castle well

wellwell shaftwell tower
Castle well
A castle well was a water well built to supply drinking water to a castle.

Stepwell

baolistep wellbawdi
Wells were first constructed at least eight thousand years ago and historically vary in construction from a simple scoop in the sediment of a dry watercourse to the qanats of Iran, and the stepwells and sakiehs of India.
Stepwells are wells or ponds in which the water is reached by descending a set of steps originating from the Indian subcontinent.

History of water supply and sanitation

sewageseweragesewage system
History of water supply and sanitation
During the Neolithic era, humans dug the first permanent water wells, from where vessels could be filled and carried by hand.

Hand pump

manual pumphandpumpparish pump
Lately, however, the described wells/pumps are no longer very efficient and can be replaced by either handpumps or treadle pumps.
Hand pumps are commonly used in developing countries for both community supply and self-supply of water and can be installed on boreholes or hand-dug wells.