Waterloo Campaign

Waterloo1815 campaignadvance on Paristhe Hundred Dayscampaign of the same name
The Waterloo Campaign (15 June – 8 July 1815) was fought between the French Army of the North and two Seventh Coalition armies, an Anglo-allied army and a Prussian army.wikipedia
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Battle of Ligny

LignyBattles of Lignyfield of Ligny
On 16 June the French prevailed with Marshal Ney commanding the left wing of the French army holding Wellington at the Battle of Quatre Bras and Napoleon defeating Blücher at the Battle of Ligny.
Had the French army succeeded in keeping the Prussian army from joining the Anglo-allied Army under Wellington at Waterloo, Napoleon might have won the Waterloo Campaign.

Military mobilisation during the Hundred Days

First French Empire and the Seventh CoalitionAustrian IV CorpsArmy of the Rhine
(see Military mobilisation during the Hundred Days)Lamarque led the small Army of the West into La Vendée to quell a Royalist insurrection in that region. He tarried for four hours expediting orders to generals Rapp, Lecourbe, and Lamarque, to advance with their respective corps by forced marches to Paris (for their corps locations see the military mobilisation during the Hundred Days): and also to the commandants of fortresses, to defend themselves to the last extremity.
This article describes the deployment of forces in early June 1815 just before the start of the Waterloo Campaign and the minor campaigns of 1815.

Cantonment

cantonmentswinter quarterscantoned
I Corps (D'Erlon) cantoned between Lille and Valenciennes.
For example, at the start of the Waterloo campaign in 1815, while the Duke of Wellington's headquarters were in Brussels, most of his Anglo-allied army of 93,000 were cantoned to the south of Brussels.

Order of battle of the Waterloo Campaign

French Army Order of BattleI Corpsright wing
From Charleroi, Napoleon proceeded to Philippeville; whence he hoped to be able to communicate more readily with Marshal Grouchy (who was commanding the detached and still intact right wing of the Army of the North).
This is the complete order of battle for the four major battles of the Waterloo Campaign.

Charles Colville

Sir Charles ColvilleColvilleGeneral Colville
On 24 June, Sir Charles Colville took the town of Cambrai by escalade, the governor retiring into the citadel, which he afterwards surrendered on 26 June, when it was given up to the order of Louis XVIII.
During the Waterloo Campaign of 1815 he commanded a division in Belgium and the same year was made a K.C.B..

Ninove

OuterOkegemDenderwindeke
Reserve cavalry (Lord Uxbridge) 9,900, in the valley of the Dendre river, between Geraardsbergen and Ninove.
The town served as a cavalry headquarters during the Waterloo Campaign of 1815.

Hans Ernst Karl, Graf von Zieten

ZietenGraf von Zietenvon Zieten
I Corps (Graf von Zieten), 30,800, cantoned along the Sambre, headquarters Charleroi, and covering the area Fontaine-l'Évêque-Fleurus-Moustier.
During the Waterloo Campaign of 1815, Lieutenant-General von Zieten commanded the Prussian I Corps.

Hundred Days

Hundred Days CampaignWar of the Seventh CoalitionSeventh Coalition
Meanwhile, far from recognising him as Emperor of the French, the Great Powers of Europe (Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia) and their allies, who were assembled at the Congress of Vienna, declared Napoleon an outlaw, and with the signing of this declaration on 13 March 1815, so began the War of the Seventh Coalition.
This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns.

Battle of Waterloo

Waterloobattlethe Battle of Waterloo
Initially the French army was commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte, but he left for Paris after the French defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
Waterloo was the decisive engagement of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon's last.

Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon

d'ErlonJean-Baptiste DrouetComte d'Erlon
I Corps (D'Erlon) cantoned between Lille and Valenciennes.
On 16 June 1815 during the first major engagements of Waterloo Campaign, due to conflicting orders his Corps spent the day on the Old Roman Road marching and counter marching between the battles of Quatre Bras and Ligny without engaging in either battle.

Johann von Thielmann

ThielemannThielmannvon Thielmann
III Corps (Thielemann), 23,900, in the bend of the river Meuse, headquarters Ciney, and disposed in the area Dinant-Huy-Ciney.
Early in the following year he became a lieutenant-general in the Prussian service, and in command of the III Corps (with Carl von Clausewitz as his chief of staff) he took part in the Waterloo campaign.

Carl von Clausewitz

Clausewitzvon ClausewitzClausewitzian
This campaign was the subject of a major strategic-level study by the famous Prussian political-military theorist Carl von Clausewitz, Feldzug von 1815: Strategische Uebersicht des Feldzugs von 1815, Written c. 1827, this study was Clausewitz's last such work and is widely considered to be the best example of Clausewitz's mature theories concerning such studies.
In that capacity he served at the Battle of Ligny and the Battle of Wavre during the Waterloo Campaign in 1815.

August Neidhardt von Gneisenau

GneisenauAugust von GneisenauCount Gneisenau
The 4,000 Prussian cavalry, that kept up an energetic pursuit during the night of 18 June, under the guidance of Marshal Gneisenau, helped to render the victory at Waterloo still more complete and decisive; and effectually deprived the French of every opportunity of recovering on the Belgian side of the frontier and to abandon most of their cannons.
In 1815, once more chief of Blücher's staff, Gneisenau played a very conspicuous part in the Waterloo campaign of June/July 1815.

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

BlücherGebhard von BlücherPrince Blücher
The Anglo-allied army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington and the Prussian army by Prince Blücher.
At the outset of the Waterloo Campaign of 1815 the Prussians sustained a serious defeat at Ligny (16 June), in the course of which the old field marshal lay trapped under his dead horse for several hours and was repeatedly ridden over by cavalry, his life saved only by the devotion of his aide-de-camp Count Nostitz, who threw a greatcoat over his commander in order to obscure Blücher's rank and identity from the passing French.

Battle of Quatre Bras

Quatre BrasQuatre-Brasengaged at Quatre Bras
On 16 June the French prevailed with Marshal Ney commanding the left wing of the French army holding Wellington at the Battle of Quatre Bras and Napoleon defeating Blücher at the Battle of Ligny.

Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow

BülowFriedrich Wilhelm von BülowVon Bülow
IV Corps (Bülow), 30,300, with headquarters at Liege and cantoned around it. This he effected, after considerable loss, particularly on the 28th, at the Battle of Villers-Cotterêts where he fell in with the left wing of the Prussian army, and afterwards with the division under General Bülow, which drove him across the river Marne, with the loss of six pieces of cannon and 1,500 prisoners.
He was soon called to the field again, and in the Waterloo Campaign commanded the IV Corps of Blücher's army.

Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey

Lord PagetLord UxbridgeThe Marquess of Anglesey
Reserve cavalry (Lord Uxbridge) 9,900, in the valley of the Dendre river, between Geraardsbergen and Ninove.

Waterloo Campaign: Quatre Bras to Waterloo

action at Genapperetreating northwardsone notable action
The French harried Wellington's army, and there was a cavalry action at Genappe.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Duke of WellingtonWellingtonArthur Wellesley
The Anglo-allied army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington and the Prussian army by Prince Blücher.
Wellington left Vienna for what became known as the Waterloo Campaign.

Jean-de-Dieu Soult

SoultMarshal SoultNicolas Soult
Command then rested on Marshals Soult and Grouchy, who were in turn replaced by Marshal Davout, who took command at the request of the French Provisional Government.
When Napoléon returned from Elba, Soult at once declared himself a Bonapartist, was made a peer of France and acted as chief of staff to the Emperor during the Waterloo campaign, in which role he distinguished himself far less than he had done as commander of an over-matched army.

Emmanuel de Grouchy, marquis de Grouchy

GrouchyEmmanuel GrouchyMarshal Grouchy
From Charleroi, Napoleon proceeded to Philippeville; whence he hoped to be able to communicate more readily with Marshal Grouchy (who was commanding the detached and still intact right wing of the Army of the North). Command then rested on Marshals Soult and Grouchy, who were in turn replaced by Marshal Davout, who took command at the request of the French Provisional Government.
In the Waterloo Campaign he commanded the reserve cavalry of the army, and after Battle of Ligny he was appointed to command the right wing to pursue the Prussians.

Reduction of the French fortresses in 1815

one of the final French fortresses to surrendercampaign against fortressescommandants of fortresses
He tarried for four hours expediting orders to generals Rapp, Lecourbe, and Lamarque, to advance with their respective corps by forced marches to Paris (for their corps locations see the military mobilisation during the Hundred Days): and also to the commandants of fortresses, to defend themselves to the last extremity.

Rémi Joseph Isidore Exelmans

ExelmansExcelmans
South of Paris, at the Battle of Rocquencourt a combined arms French force of commanded by General Exelmans destroyed a Prussian brigade of hussars under the command of Colonel von Sohr (who was severely wounded and taken prisoner during the skirmish), but this did not prevent the Prussians moving their whole army to the south side.
During the Waterloo Campaign, the corps fought in the battles of Ligny and Wavre.

Waterloo Campaign: Waterloo to Paris (25 June – 1 July)

next week (25 June – 1 July)Battle of Villers-CotterêtsWaterloo campaign
This he effected, after considerable loss, particularly on the 28th, at the Battle of Villers-Cotterêts where he fell in with the left wing of the Prussian army, and afterwards with the division under General Bülow, which drove him across the river Marne, with the loss of six pieces of cannon and 1,500 prisoners.

Waterloo Campaign: Start of hostilities

rapidly overran Coalition outpostsrearguard actions on 15 June
The Waterloo Campaign commenced with a pre-emptive attack by the French Army of the North under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.