A report on Watermill

Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century)
Interior of the Lyme Regis watermill, UK (14th century)
Model of a Roman water-powered grain-mill described by Vitruvius. The millstone (upper floor) is powered by an undershot waterwheel by the way of a gear mechanism (lower floor)
Scheme of the Roman Hierapolis sawmill, the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism.
Roman turbine mill at Chemtou, Tunisia. The tangential water inflow of the millrace made the horizontal wheel in the shaft turn like a true turbine, the earliest known.
Medieval watermill
German ship mills on the Rhine, around 1411
A Northern Song era (960–1127) water-powered mill for dehusking grain with a horizontal wheel
An Afghan water mill photographed during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The rectangular water mill has a thatched roof and traditional design with a small horizontal mill-house built of stone or perhaps mud bricks
A watermill in Tapolca, Veszprem County, Hungary
Roblin's Mill, a watermill, at Black Creek Pioneer Village in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Watermills on the Pliva in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina
The interior of a functional watermill at Weald and Downland Open Air Museum
Mulino Meraviglia in San Vittore Olona, Italy, along Olona river
Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire, United Kingdom
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A breastshot waterwheel at Dalgarven Mill, United Kingdom
Watermill in Kuusamo (Finland)
Watermill in Jahodná (Slovakia)
Watermill in Caldas Novas, Brazil
Former watermill in Kohila, Estonia
Undershot water wheel, applied for watermilling since the 1st century BC
Overshot water wheel, applied for watermilling since the 1st century BC
Breastshot water wheel, applied for watermilling since the 3rd century AD<ref name="Wikander 2000, 375"/>
Pitchback water wheel, often used to increase the power generated by a breastshot wheel<ref name="Yorke">{{cite book|last=Yorke|first=Stan|title=The Industrial Revolution explained|publisher=Countryside Books|location=Newbury, Berks|year=2005|pages=20–31|isbn=978-1-85306-935-2}}</ref>

Mill that uses hydropower.

- Watermill
Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century)

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The reversible water wheel powering a mine hoist in De re metallica (Georgius Agricola, 1566)

Water wheel

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The reversible water wheel powering a mine hoist in De re metallica (Georgius Agricola, 1566)
Vertical axis water mill
Stream shot waterwheel
Undershot waterwheel showing headrace, tailrace, and water
Breastshot waterwheel showing headrace, tailrace, and water
Overshot waterwheel showing headrace, tailrace, water, and spillage
Backshot waterwheel showing headrace, tailrace, water, and spillage
One of Finch Foundry's water wheels.
The Anderson Mill of Texas is undershot, backshot, and overshot using two sources of water. This allows the direction of the wheel to be reversed.
Two types of hydraulic-powered chain pumps from the Tiangong Kaiwu of 1637, written by the Ming Dynasty encyclopedist, Song Yingxing (1587–1666).
Sequence of wheels found in Rio Tinto mines
Drainage wheel from Rio Tinto mines
Vitruvius' undershot-wheeled watermill (reconstruction)
Scheme of the Roman Hierapolis sawmill, Asia Minor, powered by a breastshot wheel
Ox-powered Roman paddle wheel boat from a 15th-century copy of De Rebus Bellicis
Water wheel powering a small village mill at the Museum of Folk Architecture and Life, Uzhhorod, Ukraine
Ore stamp mill (behind worker taking ore from chute). From Georg Agricola's De re metallica (1556)
Lady Isabella Wheel, Laxey, Isle of Man, used to drive mine pumps
The suspension wheel with rim-gearing at the Portland Basin Canal Warehouse
The norias of Hama on the Orontes River
Water wheel in Djambi, Sumatra, c. 1918
Parameters for measuring the head and flow rate of a water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

A tabletop hammer mill

Mill (grinding)

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Device, often a structure, machine or kitchen appliance, that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.

Device, often a structure, machine or kitchen appliance, that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.

A tabletop hammer mill
Operation of a ball mill
Principle of SAG Mill operation
Table top hammer mill
A windmill in Kuremaa, Jõgeva County, Estonia
A watermill in Kuusamo, North Ostrobothnia, Finland

Historically mills were powered by hand or by animals (e.g., via a hand crank), working animal (e.g., horse mill), wind (windmill) or water (watermill).

Allied Mills flour mill on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal

Gristmill

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A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.

A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.

Allied Mills flour mill on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal
Senenu Grinding Grain, ca. 1352–1336 B.C., The royal scribe Senenu appears here bent over a large grinding stone. This unusual sculpture seems to be an elaborate version of a shabti, a funerary figurine placed in the tomb to work in place of the deceased in the hereafter. Brooklyn Museum
The basic anatomy of a millstone. This diagram depicts a runner stone.
Grinding mechanism in an old Swedish flour mill
The old water mill at Decew Falls, Niagara Escarpment, St. Catharines, Canada
Stretton Watermill, 17th-century built operational mill in Cheshire, England
Grist mill, unidentified, circa 1880
Modern mills are highly automated. Interior in Tartu Mill, the biggest grain milling company in the Baltic states.
The Pilgrim's Pride feed mill in Pittsburg, Texas, in August 2015
Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, Virginia, 1938
Gristmill hopper, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938. Grain was funneled through the hopper to a grinding stone below.
Gristmill drive machinery, Thomas Mill, Chester County, PA
Pedal powered wheat mill, Shediac Cape, New Brunswick
Remnants of some of the scores of flour mills built in Minneapolis between 1850 and 1900. Note the underground Mill race that powered mills on the west side of the Mississippi River at St. Anthony Falls
Wheel of the 1840s-era Grist Mill at Old Sturbridge Village in Sturbridge, MA
"Slipper" feeding corn into the grindstones of George Washington's Gristmill
Old turbine wheel at the old grist mill in Thorp, Washington
The grist mill at the Wayside Inn in Sudbury, Massachusetts
Grain mill with bevel gears outside local museum at Dordrecht
Grist mill at Jarrell Plantation, acquired 1899
Water-powered corn mill at Mingus Mill.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.greatsmokies.com/mingus-mill/|title = Mingus Mill in the Smokies - Grist Mill Near Cherokee NC}}</ref>

Classical mill designs are usually water-powered, though some are powered by the wind or by livestock.

The Three Gorges Dam in China; the hydroelectric dam is the world's largest power station by installed capacity.

Hydropower

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Use of falling or fast-running water to produce electricity or to power machines.

Use of falling or fast-running water to produce electricity or to power machines.

The Three Gorges Dam in China; the hydroelectric dam is the world's largest power station by installed capacity.
A water piston from the Nongshu by Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333)
Saint Anthony Falls, United States; hydropower was used here to mill flour.
Directly water-powered ore mill, late nineteenth century
Benoît Fourneyron, the French engineer who developed the first hydropower turbine
A shishi-odoshi powered by falling water breaks the quietness of a Japanese garden with the sound of a bamboo rocker arm hitting a rock.
A conventional dammed-hydro facility (hydroelectric dam) is the most common type of hydroelectric power generation.
Chief Joseph Dam near Bridgeport, Washington, is a major run-of-the-river station without a sizeable reservoir.
Micro hydro in Northwest Vietnam
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped Storage Scheme in Wales. The lower power station can generate 360 MW of electricity.

Since ancient times, hydropower from watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of mechanical devices, such as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills.

The ship mill at Minden, Germany.

Ship mill

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The ship mill at Minden, Germany.
German ship mills on the Rhine at Cologne, around 1411.
Ship mills under a bridge in Paris in the 1310s.
A model of a Boat mill in 1/96th scale
A ship mill (drawing 1 after H.Ernst, 1805).
A ship mill (drawing 2 after H.Ernst, 1805).
A ship mill in Magdeburg, Germany.
A ship mill in Höfgen at Grimma, Germany.
A ship mill on the Mur River near Verzej, Slovenia.
A ship mill replica on the Mur River at Mursko Središće, Croatia.

A ship mill, more commonly known as a boat mill is a type of watermill.

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Tide mill

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Three Mills, Stratford, one of the world's earliest recorded tide mills.
Three Mills, House Mill and Miller's House at low tide
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A tide mill is a water mill driven by tidal rise and fall.

A 1960s trip hammer placed at Trattenbach village, Lower Austria

Trip hammer

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Massive powered hammer.

Massive powered hammer.

A 1960s trip hammer placed at Trattenbach village, Lower Austria
The same trip hammer in operation, shaping a folding knife at the strike area
A water powered trip hammer from the Nong Shu by Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333)
Hydrodynamic powered trip hammer set, illustration from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia of 1637, written by Song Yingxing (1587–1666)
The regular indentations on the Carreg Pumsaint and similar mortar blocks are believed to stem from mechanically operated trip hammers.
Roman stone anvil for a stamp battery
Water-powered ore crusher by Georgius Agricola
Water-powered hammers at Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet

Grain-pounders with pestles, as well as ordinary watermills, are attested as late as the middle of the 5th century AD in a monastery founded by Romanus of Condat in the remote Jura region, indicating that the knowledge of trip hammers continued into the early Middle Ages.

International Paper Company's Kraft pulp and paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. When built, this was the world's largest mill.

Paper mill

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Factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags, and other ingredients.

Factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags, and other ingredients.

International Paper Company's Kraft pulp and paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. When built, this was the world's largest mill.
Basement of paper mill in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Pulp and paper manufacture involves a great deal of humidity, which presents a preventive maintenance and corrosion challenge.
A mid-19th century paper mill, the Forest Fibre Company, in Berlin, New Hampshire
Dutch paper mill from 1654 in the Arnhem open-air museum
Stromer's paper mill, the building complex at the far right bottom, in the Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493. Due to their noise and smell, papermills were required by medieval law to be erected some distance from the city walls.
The Tervakoski Paper Mill in Tervakoski, Janakkala, Finland

Historical investigations into the origin of the paper mill are complicated by differing definitions and loose terminology from modern authors: Many modern scholars use the term to refer indiscriminately to all kinds of mills, whether powered by humans, by animals or by water.

Three different kinds of wheat and rye flour. From left to right: wheat flour Type 550 (all purpose flour), wheat flour Type 1050 (first clear flour), rye flour Type 1150

Flour

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Powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds.

Powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds.

Three different kinds of wheat and rye flour. From left to right: wheat flour Type 550 (all purpose flour), wheat flour Type 1050 (first clear flour), rye flour Type 1150
All-purpose flour
Cassava flour (left) and corn flour (right) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. These flours are basic ingredients for the cuisine of Central Africa.
Kinako
A field of unripe wheat
A Walz set of roller mills.
Flour being stored in large cloth sacks
A variety of types of flour and cereals sold at a bazaar in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.

Detail of engraving showing Scotswomen singing a waulking song while walking or fulling cloth, 1772 (from Pennant's Tour).

Fulling

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Step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and to make it thicker.

Step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and to make it thicker.

Detail of engraving showing Scotswomen singing a waulking song while walking or fulling cloth, 1772 (from Pennant's Tour).
Fulling mill in Remetea, Romania
Rotary fulling mill
A fulling mill from Georg Andreas Böckler's Theatrum Machinarum Novum, 1661

From the medieval period, however, fulling was often carried out in a water mill, followed by stretching the cloth on great frames known as tenters, to which it is attached by tenterhooks.