# A report on Wave–particle duality

Concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantum entity may be described as either a particle or a wave.

- Wave–particle duality33 related topics with Alpha

## Quantum mechanics

16 linksFundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values (quantization), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (wave–particle duality), and there are limits to how accurately the value of a physical quantity can be predicted prior to its measurement, given a complete set of initial conditions (the uncertainty principle).

## Photon

13 linksElementary particle that is a quantum of the electromagnetic field, including electromagnetic radiation such as light and radio waves, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

Elementary particle that is a quantum of the electromagnetic field, including electromagnetic radiation such as light and radio waves, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics, and exhibit wave–particle duality, their behavior featuring properties of both waves and particles.

## Electron

12 linksSubatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

Subatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: They can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light.

## Niels Bohr

8 linksDanish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

He conceived the principle of complementarity: that items could be separately analysed in terms of contradictory properties, like behaving as a wave or a stream of particles.

## Louis de Broglie

8 linksFrench physicist and aristocrat who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.

French physicist and aristocrat who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.

This concept is known as the de Broglie hypothesis, an example of wave–particle duality, and forms a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics.

## Erwin Schrödinger

7 linksNobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum theory: the Schrödinger equation provides a way to calculate the wave function of a system and how it changes dynamically in time.

Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum theory: the Schrödinger equation provides a way to calculate the wave function of a system and how it changes dynamically in time.

During this period Schrödinger turned from mainstream quantum mechanics' definition of wave–particle duality and promoted the wave idea alone, causing much controversy.

## Double-slit experiment

5 linksDemonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

Demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

Thomas Young's experiment with light was part of classical physics long before the development of quantum mechanics and the concept of wave–particle duality.

## Atom

6 linksSmallest unit of ordinary matter that forms a chemical element.

Smallest unit of ordinary matter that forms a chemical element.

Electrons, like other particles, have properties of both a particle and a wave.

## Light

4 linksElectromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is perceived by the human eye.

Electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is perceived by the human eye.

Like all types of electromagnetic radiation, visible light propagates by massless elementary particles called photons that represents the quanta of electromagnetic field, and can be analyzed as both waves and particles.

## Quantum field theory

4 linksTheoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity, and quantum mechanics.

Theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity, and quantum mechanics.

In 1924, Louis de Broglie proposed the hypothesis of wave–particle duality, that microscopic particles exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties under different circumstances.