Wearable computer

wearable computingwearableswearablewearable electronicswearable computers wearablescomputer worn around the wristwearable / mobile computingwearable computer systemwearable devices
Wearable computers, also known as wearables or body-borne computers, are small computing devices (nowadays usually electronic) that are worn under, with, or on top of clothing.wikipedia
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Mobile computing

mobilemobile computermobile computers
Wearables may be for general use, in which case they are just a particularly small example of mobile computing.
* Wearable computers, mostly limited to functional keys and primarily intended as incorporation of software agents, such as bracelets, keyless implants, etc.

Steve Mann

Prof. Steve MannSteve Mann’sSteven Mann
By this definition, the wearable computer was invented by Steve Mann, in the late 1970s: Mann went on to be an early and active researcher in the wearables field, especially known for his 1994 creation of the Wearable Wireless Webcam, the first example of Lifelogging.
Steven Mann (born 1962) is a Canadian researcher and inventor best known for his work on augmented reality, computational photography, particularly wearable computing and high dynamic range imaging.


smart textileselectronic textilesmart fabric
electronic textiles and fashion design, e.g. Microsoft's 2011 prototype "The Printing Dress".
Many smart clothing, wearable technology, and wearable computing projects involve the use of e-textiles.


smart watchsmartwatcheswatch phone
general-purpose computing (e.g. smartphones and smartwatches)
A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a wristwatch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry (such as long-term biomonitoring).

Edward O. Thorp

Ed ThorpEdward ThorpThorp
In 1961, mathematicians Edward O. Thorp and Claude Shannon built some computerized timing devices to help them win at a game of roulette.
He also developed and applied effective hedge fund techniques in the financial markets, and collaborated with Claude Shannon in creating the first wearable computer.


Mann went on to be an early and active researcher in the wearables field, especially known for his 1994 creation of the Wearable Wireless Webcam, the first example of Lifelogging.
Perhaps the first person to capture continuous physiological data together with live first-person video from a wearable camera, was Steve Mann whose experiments with wearable computing and streaming video in the early 1980s led to Wearable Wireless Webcam.

Thad Starner

In 1993, the Private Eye was used in Thad Starner's wearable, based on Doug Platt's system and built from a kit from Park Enterprises, a Private Eye display on loan from Devon Sean McCullough, and the Twiddler chording keyboard made by Handykey.
He is a pioneer of wearable computing as well as human-computer interaction augmented environments and pattern recognition.


roulette wheelAmerican Roulettebetting wheel
In 1961, mathematicians Edward O. Thorp and Claude Shannon built some computerized timing devices to help them win at a game of roulette.
Edward O. Thorp (the developer of card counting and an early hedge-fund pioneer) and Claude Shannon (a mathematician and electronic engineer best known for his contributions to information theory) built the first wearable computer to predict the landing of the ball in 1961.


wristwatchwatchesdigital watch
The definition of 'wearable computer' may be narrow or broad, extending to smartphones or even ordinary wristwatches.
Several companies have however attempted to develop a computer contained in a wristwatch (see also wearable computer).

International Symposium on Wearable Computers

International Symposium on Wearables Computers (ISWC)ISWC
In October 1997, Carnegie Mellon University, MIT, and Georgia Tech co-hosted the IEEE International Symposium on Wearables Computers (ISWC) in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The International Symposium on Wearable Computers or ISWC (pronounced "iz-wic") is one of the most prominent academic conferences on wearable computing and ubiquitous computing.


Also in 2002, Xybernaut released a wearable computer called the Xybernaut Poma Wearable PC, Poma for short.
Xybernaut Corporation is a provider of wearable / mobile computing hardware, software, and services.

Claude Shannon

ShannonClaude E. ShannonC.E. Shannon
In 1961, mathematicians Edward O. Thorp and Claude Shannon built some computerized timing devices to help them win at a game of roulette.
He is also considered the co-inventor of the first wearable computer along with Edward O. Thorp.


In the late 2000s, various Chinese companies began producing mobile phones in the form of wristwatches, the descendants of which as of 2013 include the i5 and i6, which are GSM phones with 1.8 inch displays, and the ZGPAX s5 Android wristwatch phone.
The ZGPAX S5 is a wearable computer (or smartwatch) from China that is one line of several different lines of products (including the Kickstarter-backed Omate TrueSmart) that all use a similar chipset and roughly the same specs but with different names, case designs and camera placements.

Timex Datalink

Timex Datalink USBTimex Data LinkTimex Ironman Datalink
Timex Datalink is another example of a practical wearable computer.
The Datalink line was introduced in 1994 and it was co-developed with Microsoft as a wearable alternative to mainstream PDAs with additional attributes such as water resistance, that PDAs lacked, and easy programmability.

Augmented reality

ARaugmentedaugmented reality (AR)
Wearable computing is the subject of active research, especially the form-factor and location on the body, with areas of study including user interface design, augmented reality, and pattern recognition.
Wearable computing

Land Warrior

The most extensive military program in the wearables arena is the US Army's Land Warrior system, which will eventually be merged into the Future Force Warrior system.
The Land Warrior program drew upon many wearable computer concepts, and maximized existing technologies to correct most infantry soldier limitations in the short term.

Activity tracker

fitness trackersmart bandfitness tracking
Alternatively they may be for specialized purposes such as fitness trackers.
It is a type of wearable computer.

Computer-mediated reality

mediated realitymediated-reality
Computer-mediated reality
Computer-mediated reality refers to the ability to add to, subtract information from, or otherwise manipulate one's perception of reality through the use of a wearable computer or hand-held device such as a smartphone.


smart glassesa pair of glassesAR headset
Smartglasses or smart glasses are wearable computer glasses that add information alongside or to what the wearer sees.


Eye Tap
The EyeTap is a hard technology to categorize under the three main headers for wearable computing (constancy, augmentation, mediation) for while it is in theory a constancy technology in nature it also has the ability to augment and mediate the reality the user perceives.

Fossil Wrist PDA

AbacusAU5005Wrist PDA
In 2002, Fossil, Inc. announced the Fossil Wrist PDA, which ran the Palm OS.
Wearable computer

Pebble (watch)

PebblePebble SmartwatchPebble watch
On April 11, 2012, Pebble launched a Kickstarter campaign to raise $100,000 for their initial smartwatch model.
Wearable computer

Pebble Time

Pebble has released several smartwatches since, including the Pebble Time and the Pebble Round.
Wearable computer

Ubiquitous computing

pervasive computingubiquitousPervasive
Google's mission was to produce a mass-market ubiquitous computer that displays information in a smartphone-like hands-free format that can interact with the Internet via natural language voice commands.
Wearable computer

Virtual retinal display

retinal projectionretinal scanning displayVirtual Retina display
Virtual retinal display
It also can be used as part of a wearable computer system.