Weather

weather conditionselementsweather patternweather systemsinclement weatheratmospheric conditionsaviation weatherfair weatherthe elementsFoul weather
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.wikipedia
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Troposphere

troposphericdivergencemid-tropospheric
Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

Climate

climaticclimate systemclimates
Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

Climate change

climatic changeclimatechanging climate
Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. Climate change caused by human activities that emit greenhouse gases into the air is expected to affect the frequency of extreme weather events such as drought, extreme temperatures, flooding, high winds, and severe storms.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

Atmospheric circulation

circulationcenter of circulationlow-level circulation
The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream.
The Earth's weather is a consequence of its illumination by the Sun, and the laws of thermodynamics.

Anticyclone

anticyclonicanti-cycloneanticyclones
A famous landmark in the Solar System, Jupiter's Great Red Spot, is an anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".

Cloud

cloudscloud formationcloudy
On Earth, the common weather phenomena include wind, cloud, rain, snow, fog and dust storms.
Ancient cloud studies were not made in isolation, but were observed in combination with other weather elements and even other natural sciences.

Pressure system

complex systemshigh-pressure systemhigh-pressure systems
The simple systems thus formed can then display emergent behaviour to produce more complex systems and thus other weather phenomena.
Pressure systems cause weather to be experienced locally.

Weather forecasting

weather forecastweathermanweather forecasts
Although it is difficult to accurately predict weather more than a few days in advance, weather forecasters are continually working to extend this limit through meteorological research and refining current methodologies in weather prediction.
People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century.

Baroclinity

baroclinicbaroclinic instabilitybaroclinicity
Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow (see baroclinity).
In the atmosphere it is the dominant mechanism shaping the cyclones and anticyclones that dominate weather in mid-latitudes.

Weather modification

weather controlcontrol the weatherweather manipulation
Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather patterns.
Weather modification is the act of intentionally manipulating or altering the weather.

Jet stream

jetstreampolar jet streamsubtropical jet stream
The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow (see baroclinity).
Weather

Albedo

albedosgeometrical albedosolar reflectance
On local scales, temperature differences can occur because different surfaces (such as oceans, forests, ice sheets, or man-made objects) have differing physical characteristics such as reflectivity, roughness, or moisture content.
The uneven heating of Earth from albedo variations between land, ice, or ocean surfaces can drive weather.

Extreme weather

extreme weather eventsextremeextreme weather event
Climate change caused by human activities that emit greenhouse gases into the air is expected to affect the frequency of extreme weather events such as drought, extreme temperatures, flooding, high winds, and severe storms.
Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.

Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanes
Less common events include natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons and ice storms.
A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone.

Atmospheric pressure

barometric pressureair pressurepressure
A hot surface warms the air above it causing it to expand and lower the density and the resulting surface air pressure.
Atmospheric pressure varies widely on Earth, and these changes are important in studying weather and climate.

Rain

rainfallrainstormtorrential rain
Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow and the wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead to survive through them.
The most successful attempts at influencing weather involve cloud seeding, which include techniques used to increase winter precipitation over mountains and suppress hail.

Mesoscale meteorology

mesoscalemesoscale meteorologicalmeso-scale
Microscale meteorology is the study of short-lived atmospheric phenomena smaller than mesoscale, about 1 km or less.
Mesoscale meteorology is the study of weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than microscale and storm-scale cumulus systems.

Synoptic scale meteorology

synoptic scalesynopticsynoptic-scale
These two branches of meteorology are sometimes grouped together as "mesoscale and microscale meteorology" (MMM) and together study all phenomena smaller than synoptic scale; that is they study features generally too small to be depicted on a weather map.
A surface weather analysis is a special type of weather map that provides a view of weather elements over a geographical area at a specified time based on information from ground-based weather stations.

Space weather

solar activitySpace Sciencecosmic storms
Inconsistencies in this wind and larger events on the surface of the star, such as coronal mass ejections, form a system that has features analogous to conventional weather systems (such as pressure and wind) and is generally known as space weather.
Space weather is distinct from but conceptually related to the terrestrial weather of the atmosphere of Earth (troposphere and stratosphere).

Weather station

meteorological stationweather stationspersonal weather station
Weather station
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.

Outline of meteorology

Meteorologyoutline
Outline of meteorology
Weather – the set of all the phenomena in a given atmosphere at a given time.

Weather map

weather chart850 mb pressure surfacemap
These two branches of meteorology are sometimes grouped together as "mesoscale and microscale meteorology" (MMM) and together study all phenomena smaller than synoptic scale; that is they study features generally too small to be depicted on a weather map.
A station model is a symbolic illustration showing the weather occurring at a given reporting station.

Atmosphere

atmosphericatmospheresplanetary atmospheres
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.

Stratosphere

stratosphericatmospherelower atmosphere
Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time.