Weather radar

Doppler weather radarradarDoppler radarradar imageryradar meteorologyDopplerMeteorological radarDoppler radarsDoppler weather radarsradar rainfall
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.).wikipedia
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Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.).
It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.

Pulse-Doppler radar

Dopplerpulse-Dopplerpulse doppler
Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.
Pulse-Doppler techniques also find widespread use in meteorological radars, allowing the radar to determine wind speed from the velocity of any precipitation in the air.

David Atlas

Atlas, David
In the United States, David Atlas at first working for the Air Force and later for MIT, developed the first operational weather radars.
David Atlas (May 25, 1924 – November 10, 2015) was an American meteorologist and one of the pioneers of radar meteorology.

Hail

hailstormhailstoneshailstone
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.).
There are methods available to detect hail-producing thunderstorms using weather satellites and weather radar imagery.

Hook echo

hook-like appendage
In 1953 Donald Staggs, an electrical engineer working for the Illinois State Water Survey, made the first recorded radar observation of a "hook echo" associated with a tornadic thunderstorm.
A hook echo is a pendant or hook-shaped weather radar signature as part of some supercell thunderstorms.

J. Stewart Marshall

J.S. Marshall
In Canada, J.S. Marshall and R.H. Douglas formed the "Stormy Weather Group" in Montreal.
Researcher for the Canadian government during the Second World war and then professor at McGill University from 1945 until his retirement in 1979, he was renowned for his research in cloud physics and precipitation, but especially for being a pioneer of weather radar.

Severe weather

severesevere weather warningsevere-weather
Both types of data can be analyzed to determine the structure of storms and their potential to cause severe weather.
If a tornado is occurring (a tornado has been seen by spotters) or is imminent (Doppler weather radar has observed strong rotation in a storm, indicating an incipient tornado), the severe thunderstorm warning will be superseded by a tornado warning in the United States and Canada.

Canadian weather radar network

Canadian Doppler networkExeter, Ontario radarHolyrood weather radar
This led to a complete Canadian Doppler network between 1998 and 2004.
The Canadian weather radar network consists of 31 weather radars spanning Canada's most populated regions.

King City weather radar station

King City
In Canada, Environment Canada constructed the King City station, with a 5 cm research Doppler radar, by 1985; McGill University dopplerized its radar (J. S. Marshall Radar Observatory) in 1993.
The King City weather radar station (ICAO site identifier CWKR) is a weather radar located in King City, Ontario, Canada.

J. S. Marshall Radar Observatory

In Canada, Environment Canada constructed the King City station, with a 5 cm research Doppler radar, by 1985; McGill University dopplerized its radar (J. S. Marshall Radar Observatory) in 1993.
The J.S. Marshall Radar Observatory (or MRO) is a McGill University facility in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada housing several weather radars and other meteorological sensors, many of them running around the clock.

Weather forecasting

weather forecastweathermanweather forecasts
Raw images are routinely used and specialized software can take radar data to make short term forecasts of future positions and intensities of rain, snow, hail, and other weather phenomena.
Meteorological radar provide information on precipitation location and intensity, which can be used to estimate precipitation accumulations over time.

Alberta Hail Project

Alberta Hail Studies
Studies of the organization of thunderstorms were then possible for the Alberta Hail Project in Canada and National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in the US in particular.
The main instrument in this research was an S-band circularly polarized weather radar located at the Red Deer Industrial Airport in central Alberta, Canada.

S band

S-bandSS-
Thus 10 cm (S-band) radar is preferred but is more expensive than a 5 cm C-band system.
The S band is used by airport surveillance radar for air traffic control, weather radar, surface ship radar, and some communications satellites, especially those used by NASA to communicate with the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station.

The Weather Channel

Weather ChannelWeather.comLocal Now
Some displays provided by commercial weather sites, like The Weather Channel, show precipitation types during the winter month : rain, snow, mixed precipitations (sleet and freezing rain).
A sister network, Weatherscan, is a digital cable and satellite service that offers 24-hour automated local forecasts and radar imagery.

C band (IEEE)

C bandC-bandC
Thus 10 cm (S-band) radar is preferred but is more expensive than a 5 cm C-band system.
The C-band (4 to 8 GHz) is used for many satellite communications transmissions, some Wi-Fi devices, some cordless telephones as well as some surveillance and weather radar systems.

X band

XX-bandX-
3 cm X-band radar is used only for short-range units, and 1 cm Ka-band weather radar is used only for research on small-particle phenomena such as drizzle and fog.
X band radar frequency sub-bands are used in civil, military, and government institutions for weather monitoring, air traffic control, maritime vessel traffic control, defense tracking, and vehicle speed detection for law enforcement.

Constant altitude plan position indicator

CAPPI
The number of scanned angles was increased to get a three-dimensional view of the precipitation, so that horizontal cross-sections (CAPPI) and vertical cross-sections could be performed.
Today, weather radars collect in real-time data on a large number of angles.

ARMOR Doppler Weather Radar

In 2004, ARMOR Doppler Weather Radar in Huntsville, Alabama was equipped with a SIGMET Antenna Mounted Receiver, giving Dual-Polarmetric capabilities to the operator.
ARMOR (Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research) Doppler weather radar is a C-Band, Dual-Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar, located at the Huntsville International Airport in Huntsville, Alabama.

Tornado vortex signature

tornadic vortex signaturestrong rotation in a storm
The researchers discovered a mesoscale rotation in the cloud aloft before the tornado touched the ground – the tornadic vortex signature.
A tornado vortex signature or tornadic vortex signature, abbreviated TVS, is a Pulse-Doppler radar weather radar detected rotation algorithm that indicates the likely presence of a strong mesocyclone that is in some stage of tornadogenesis.

Tornado

tornadoestornadicCyclone
With more information about particle shape, dual-polarization radars can more easily distinguish airborne debris from precipitation, making it easier to locate tornados.
Doppler radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (trochoidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating.

National Weather Service

Weather BureauNWSUnited States Weather Bureau
NSSL's research helped convince the National Weather Service that Doppler radar was a crucial forecasting tool.
The WSR-88D Doppler weather radar system, also called NEXRAD, was developed by the National Weather Service during the mid-1980s, and fully deployed throughout the majority of the United States by 1997.

Terminal Doppler Weather Radar

TDWRTerminal Doppler
The TDWR has about half the beamwidth of the other and one can see twice more details than with the NEXRAD.
Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) is a Doppler weather radar system with a three-dimensional "pencil beam" used primarily for the detection of hazardous wind shear conditions, precipitation, and winds aloft on and near major airports situated in climates with great exposure to thunderstorms in the United States.

NEXRAD

WSR-88Ddoppler radardual-polarization NEXRAD radar
In the United States, the construction of a network consisting of 10 cm radars, called NEXRAD or WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler), was started in 1988 following NSSL's research.
NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 159 high-resolution S-band Doppler weather radars operated by the National Weather Service (NWS), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the United States Department of Commerce, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) within the Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Air Force within the Department of Defense.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
Since 2003, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has been experimenting with phased-array radar as a replacement for conventional parabolic antenna to provide more time resolution in atmospheric sounding.
The NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities.

Freezing rain

icesleetfrozen rain
Some displays provided by commercial weather sites, like The Weather Channel, show precipitation types during the winter month : rain, snow, mixed precipitations (sleet and freezing rain).
One can never see directly freezing rain, rain or snow on weather radars, Doppler or conventional.