Weather satellite

satellitemeteorological satelliteWeathersatellite imagerysatellite imagesmeteorological satellitesweather satellitessatellitesMeteorologysatellite meteorology
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.wikipedia
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Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellites
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes.

TIROS-1

TIROS 1 instrumentsTIROS I
The first weather satellite to be considered a success was TIROS-1, launched by NASA on April 1, 1960.
TIROS I (or TIROS-1) was the first successful low-Earth orbital weather satellite, and the first of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites.

Polar orbit

polarpolar-orbitingnear-polar
Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.
Polar orbits are often used for Earth-mapping, Earth observation, capturing the Earth as time passes from one point, reconnaissance satellites, as well as for some weather satellites.

Vanguard 2

Vanguard IIFirst weather satelliteFirst Weather Satellite, The
The first weather satellite, Vanguard 2, was launched on February 17, 1959.
Vanguard 2 was the first weather satellite.

Eye (cyclone)

eyeeye featureeyewall
Infrared satellite imagery can be used effectively for tropical cyclones with a visible eye pattern, using the Dvorak technique, where the difference between the temperature of the warm eye and the surrounding cold cloud tops can be used to determine its intensity (colder cloud tops generally indicate a more intense storm).
In weaker tropical cyclones, the eye is less well defined and can be covered by the central dense overcast, an area of high, thick clouds that show up brightly on satellite imagery.

Dvorak technique

Dvorak classificationsDvorakDvorak estimates
Infrared satellite imagery can be used effectively for tropical cyclones with a visible eye pattern, using the Dvorak technique, where the difference between the temperature of the warm eye and the surrounding cold cloud tops can be used to determine its intensity (colder cloud tops generally indicate a more intense storm).
The Dvorak technique (developed between 1969 and 1984 by Vernon Dvorak) is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity (which includes tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane/typhoon/intense tropical cyclone intensities) based solely on visible and infrared satellite images.

Geostationary orbit

GeostationaryGEOgeostationary satellite
Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.
Weather satellites are also placed in this orbit for real time monitoring and data collection, and navigation satellites to provide a known calibration point and enhance GPS accuracy.

GOES-16

GOES-RAdvanced Baseline ImagerGeostationary Lightning Mapper
The United States' GOES series has three in operation: GOES-15, GOES-16 and GOES-17.
GOES-16 serves as the operational geostationary weather satellite in the GOES East position at 75.2°W, providing a view centered on the Americas.

GOES 15

GOES-15GOES PGOES-P
The United States' GOES series has three in operation: GOES-15, GOES-16 and GOES-17.
GOES-15, previously known as GOES-P, is an American weather satellite, which forms part of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system operated by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Weather forecasting

weather forecastweather forecastsweatherman
Beginning with the Nimbus 3 satellite in 1969, temperature information through the tropospheric column began to be retrieved by satellites from the eastern Atlantic and most of the Pacific Ocean, which led to significant improvements to weather forecasts.
In the late 1970s and early 80s, John Coleman, the first weatherman on ABC-TV's Good Morning America, pioneered the use of on-screen weather satellite information and computer graphics for television forecasts.

Multi-Functional Transport Satellite

MTSATMTSAT-1MTSAT-2
The Japanese have the MTSAT-2 located over the mid Pacific at 145°E and the Himawari 8 at 140°E.
Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT) were a series of weather and aviation control satellites.

Himawari 8

Himawari-8
The Japanese have the MTSAT-2 located over the mid Pacific at 145°E and the Himawari 8 at 140°E.
Himawari 8 (ひまわり8号) is a Japanese weather satellite, the 8th of the Himawari geostationary weather satellites operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Elektro-L No.1

No.1
Russia's new-generation weather satellite Elektro-L No.1 operates at 76°E over the Indian Ocean.
Elektro-L No.1 (Электро-L), also known as Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite No.2 or GOMS No.2, is a Russian geostationary weather satellite which was launched in 2011.

Fengyun

FY-1CFeng YunFeng Yun 1C
China currently has three Fengyun geostationary satellites (FY-2E at 86.5°E, FY-2F at 123.5°E, and FY-2G at 105°E) operated.
Fēngyún, abbreviated FY, are China's weather satellites.

Meteosat

MSG-4Meteosat Second GenerationMeteosat Third Generation
The Europeans have four in operation, Meteosat-8 (3.5°W) and Meteosat-9 (0°) over the Atlantic Ocean and have Meteosat-6 (63°E) and Meteosat-7 (57.5°E) over the Indian Ocean.
The Meteosat series of satellites are geostationary meteorological satellites operated by EUMETSAT under the Meteosat Transition Programme (MTP) and the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) program.

Polar Operational Environmental Satellites

POESpolar-orbiting environmental satelliteNOAA Polar Operational Satellites (POES)
The United States has the NOAA series of polar orbiting meteorological satellites, presently NOAA-15, NOAA-18 and NOAA-19 (POES) and NOAA-20 (JPSS).
The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) was a constellation of polar orbiting weather satellites funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) with the intent of improving the accuracy and detail of weather analysis and forecasting.

Meteor (satellite)

MeteorMeteor-MMeteor-3M
Russia has the Meteor and RESURS series of satellites.
The Meteor spacecraft are weather observation satellites launched by the USSR and Russia.

Infrared

IRnear-infraredinfra-red
Infrared satellite imagery can be used effectively for tropical cyclones with a visible eye pattern, using the Dvorak technique, where the difference between the temperature of the warm eye and the surrounding cold cloud tops can be used to determine its intensity (colder cloud tops generally indicate a more intense storm). Observation is typically made via different 'channels' of the electromagnetic spectrum, in particular, the visible and infrared portions.
Weather satellites equipped with scanning radiometers produce thermal or infrared images, which can then enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types, to calculate land and surface water temperatures, and to locate ocean surface features.

Sun-synchronous orbit

Sun-synchronousSSOSun Synchronous
Polar orbiting weather satellites are in sun-synchronous orbits, which means they are able to observe any place on Earth and will view every location twice each day with the same general lighting conditions due to the near-constant local solar time.
This orbit is also useful for imaging, spy, and weather satellites, because every time that the satellite is overhead, the surface illumination angle on the planet underneath it will be nearly the same.

MetOp

MetOp-AMetOp-BEUMETSAT Polar System
Europe has the Metop-A and Metop-B satellites operated by EUMETSAT.
MetOp is a series of three polar-orbiting meteorological satellites developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and operated by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).

European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

EUMETSATEuropean Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites)
Europe has the Metop-A and Metop-B satellites operated by EUMETSAT.
The activities of EUMETSAT contribute to a global meteorological satellite observing system coordinated with other space-faring nations.

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DMSPP-35Data Acquisition and Processing Program
The United States Department of Defense's Meteorological Satellite (DMSP) can "see" the best of all weather vehicles with its ability to detect objects almost as 'small' as a huge oil tanker.
Unbeknownst to many, the U.S. military services were also starting up a weather satellite program.

Nimbus program

NimbusNimbus 7Nimbus 1
TIROS paved the way for the Nimbus program, whose technology and findings are the heritage of most of the Earth-observing satellites NASA and NOAA have launched since then.

Indian National Satellite System

INSATINSAT-1BINSAT 4B
India also operates geostationary satellites called INSAT which carry instruments for meteorological purposes.
The GSAT-9, also known as the "South Asia Satellite", is a geostationary communications satellite and meteorology satellite operated by the ISRO for the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region.

Thermographic camera

infrared sensorinfrared camerathermal camera
Using color-digitized techniques, the gray shaded thermal images can be converted to color for easier identification of desired information.