Web blocking in the United Kingdom

blocking orderfamily-friendly filtersweb blockingblock access to a websiteblocking access to sitesby many UK ISPinternet saferISP-specific programmesnew round of web blockingweb blocking technology
The precise number of websites blocked in the United Kingdom is unknown.wikipedia
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Child abuse image content list

Cleanfeed
Cleanfeed was temporarily extended to block Newzbin until this process was moved to ISP-specific programmes.

Counter-Terrorism Internet Referral Unit

Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit
The Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit (CTIRU), which was set up in 2010 by the Association of Chief Police Officers and run by the Metropolitan Police Service, maintains a list of sites and content that in their opinion incites or glorifies terrorist acts under Section 3 of the Terrorism Act 2006.
The December 2013 report of the Prime Minister's Extremism Taskforce said that it would "work with internet companies to restrict access to terrorist material online which is hosted overseas but illegal under UK law" and "work with the internet industry to help them in their continuing efforts to identify extremist content to include in family-friendly filters" which would likely involve lobbying ISPs to add the CTIRU list to their filters without the need for additional legislation.

Montblanc (company)

MontblancMont BlancMont Blanc pen
In October 2014 the first blocking order against trademark infringing consumer goods was passed against the major UK ISPs by Richemont, Cartier International and Montblanc to block several domains.
In October 2014 the first blocking order against trademark infringing consumer goods was passed against the major UK ISPs by Richemont, Cartier International and Montblanc to block several domains selling trademark infringing products.

UK Council for Child Internet Safety

UKCCIS
This was followed by a review (the Bailey Review) and a consultation by the UK Council for Child Internet Safety (UKCCIS).

Richemont

Richemont GroupCompagnie Financière RichemontCompagnie Financière Richemont SA
In October 2014 the first blocking order against trademark infringing consumer goods was passed against the major UK ISPs by Richemont, Cartier International and Montblanc to block several domains.
In October 2014 the first blocking order against trademark infringing consumer goods was passed against the major UK ISPs by Richemont, Cartier International and Montblanc to block several domains selling trademark infringing products.

Sky Broadband

SkySky Broadband Ltdsuperfast fibre broadband
However, further court orders resulted in Sky blocking access to Newzbin in December 2011 and Virgin Media blocking access to the site in August 2012.
In March 2014 Samuel L. Jackson and the other stars of Captain America: The Winter Soldier appeared in advertisements for the 'Sky Broadband Shield' web blocking product.

Internet censorship in the United Kingdom

remove unlawful terrorist material content from the Internetblocked by major ISPs in the United Kingdomdefault filtering of Internet pornography
It is achieved by blocking access to sites as well as the use of laws that criminalise publication or possession of certain types of material.

Association of Chief Police Officers

ACPOAPCOAssociation of Chief Police Officers (ACPO)
The Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit (CTIRU), which was set up in 2010 by the Association of Chief Police Officers and run by the Metropolitan Police Service, maintains a list of sites and content that in their opinion incites or glorifies terrorist acts under Section 3 of the Terrorism Act 2006.
The December 2013 report of the Prime Minister's Extremism task force said that it would "work with internet companies to restrict access to terrorist material online which is hosted overseas but illegal under UK law" and "work with the internet industry to help them in their continuing efforts to identify extremist content to include in family-friendly filters" which would likely involve lobbying ISPs to add the CTIRU list to their filters without the need for additional legislation.

NortonLifeLock

SymantecSymantec CorporationSygate
It is used as the base for content filtering by many UK ISP.

Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit

Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit (PIPCU)
On August 5, 2014, City of London Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit arrested a 20-year-old man in Nottingham on suspicion of operating a proxy server that allowed internet users to bypass blocks on many popular sites.
In response to the new round of web blocking in the UK in conjunction with the copyright infringing site blocking programmes, a service called Immunicity was launched.

Online Harms White Paper

In 2019, the UK government published its Online Harms White Paper, which covers many of the "online harms" discussed above.

List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom

Websites blocked in the United KingdomBlocked in the United Kingdomknown to be blocked

Internet service provider

ISPInternet service providersISPs
Blocking techniques vary from one Internet service provider (ISP) to another with some sites or specific URLs blocked by some ISPs and not others.

Censorship

censoredcensorcensors
Websites and services are blocked using a combination of data feeds from private content-control technology companies, government agencies, NGOs, court orders in conjunction with the service administrators who may or may not have the power to unblock, additionally block, appeal or recategorise blocked content.

Incitement to ethnic or racial hatred

incitement to racial hatredinciting racial hatredinciting ethnic hatred
Inciting racial hatred was removed from the IWF's remit on the setting up of a police website for the purpose in April 2011.

DNS hijacking

DNS hijackerDNS hijackershijacked
The technical measures used to block sites include DNS hijacking, DNS blocking, IP address blocking, and Deep packet inspection, making consistent verification problematic.

DNS blocking

DNS
The technical measures used to block sites include DNS hijacking, DNS blocking, IP address blocking, and Deep packet inspection, making consistent verification problematic.

IP address blocking

IP blockingbanblock
The technical measures used to block sites include DNS hijacking, DNS blocking, IP address blocking, and Deep packet inspection, making consistent verification problematic.

Deep packet inspection

Deep Packet Inspection (DPI)DPIComplete Packet Inspection
The technical measures used to block sites include DNS hijacking, DNS blocking, IP address blocking, and Deep packet inspection, making consistent verification problematic.

Data scraping

screen scrapingscrapingscreen-scraping
One known method is ISP scraping DNS of domains subject to blocking orders to produce a list of IPs to block.

Open Rights Group

ORG
The Open Rights Group has proposed adding the new HTTP status code '451' to help streamline and add transparency to the process of determining when a site is blocked.

List of HTTP status codes

HTTP status codestatus codeHTTP status codes
The Open Rights Group has proposed adding the new HTTP status code '451' to help streamline and add transparency to the process of determining when a site is blocked.

HTTP 451

451451 Unavailable For Legal ReasonsError status code 451
The Open Rights Group has proposed adding the new HTTP status code '451' to help streamline and add transparency to the process of determining when a site is blocked.