Web page

The home page of a website displayed in a web browser

Hypertext document on the World Wide Web.

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HTML

Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009
Logo of HTML5

HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.

JavaScript

Programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and CSS.

As of 2022, 98% of websites use JavaScript on the client side for web page behavior, often incorporating third-party libraries.

CSS

Style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language such as HTML.

Håkon Wium Lie, chief technical officer of the Opera Software company and co-creator of the CSS web standards

This separation can improve content accessibility; provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics; enable multiple web pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate .css file, which reduces complexity and repetition in the structural content; and enable the .css file to be cached to improve the page load speed between the pages that share the file and its formatting.

URL

Reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.

URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http) but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications.

Dynamic web page

Dynamic web page: example of server-side scripting (PHP and MySQL).
When a request to a dynamic web page or resource is made, the application server processes the request using its server-side language.

A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts.

Browser engine

Core software component of every major web browser.

An example of two components expressed in UML 2.0. The checkout component, responsible for facilitating the customer's order, requires the card processing component to charge the customer's credit/debit card (functionality that the latter provides).

The primary job of a browser engine is to transform HTML documents and other resources of a web page into an interactive visual representation on a user's device.

Hyperlink

Reference to data that the user can follow by clicking or tapping.

An example of a hyperlink as commonly seen in a web browser, with a mouse pointer hovering above it
Several documents being connected by hyperlinks
How internal MediaWiki links work when one wants to create a link that displays words different from the linked page's title.
Douglas Engelbart and his team at SRI, 1969

Webgraph is a graph, formed from web pages as vertices and hyperlinks, as directed edges.

Website

The usap.gov website
The nasa.gov home page in 2015
Server-side programming language usage in 2016.

A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server.

Hypertext

Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.
Engineer Vannevar Bush wrote "As We May Think" in 1945 in which he described the Memex, a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.
Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS computer system which was a combination of hardware and software that demonstrated many hypertext ideas.
Ted Nelson gives a presentation on Project Xanadu, a theoretical hypertext model conceived in the 1960s whose first and incomplete implementation was first published in 1998.
Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 Display console – Brown University 1969

Hypertext is one of the key underlying concepts of the World Wide Web, where Web pages are often written in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Web browser

Application software for accessing the World Wide Web or a local website.

Traditional browser arrangement: UI features above page content
Nicola Pellow and Tim Berners-Lee in 1992
Marc Andreessen, lead developer of Mosaic and Navigator, in 2007

When a user requests a web page from a particular website, the web browser retrieves the necessary content from a web server and then displays the page on the user's device.