Webster–Ashburton Treaty

Webster–Ashburton Treaty ratification
Settlement in the East. The disputed areas are shown in red and the boundary established by the treaty in green.
Plaque in Washington, D.C.
Maine boundary dispute that led to the 1842 Webster–Ashburton Treaty

Treaty that resolved several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies .

- Webster–Ashburton Treaty
Webster–Ashburton Treaty ratification

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Map showing the boundary claims and final border

Aroostook War

Military and civilian-involved confrontation in 1838–1839 between the United States and the United Kingdom over the international boundary between the British colony of New Brunswick and the U.S. state of Maine.

Military and civilian-involved confrontation in 1838–1839 between the United States and the United Kingdom over the international boundary between the British colony of New Brunswick and the U.S. state of Maine.

Map showing the boundary claims and final border
1820 map of Maine
1839 map of the disputed territory
Webster–Ashburton Treaty

The Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842 established the final boundary between the countries, giving most of the disputed area to Maine while preserving an overland connection between Lower Canada and the Maritime colonies.

United States territorial border changes

Treaty of 1818

International treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom.

International treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom.

United States territorial border changes
Albert Gallatin (1848 photograph)

The treaty marked both the United Kingdom's last permanent major loss of territory in what is now the Continental United States and the United States' first permanent significant cession of North American territory to a foreign power, the second being the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842.

Tyler, c. 1861

John Tyler

The 10th president of the United States, serving from 1841 to 1845, after briefly holding office as the 10th vice president in 1841.

The 10th president of the United States, serving from 1841 to 1845, after briefly holding office as the 10th vice president in 1841.

Tyler, c. 1861
Tyler's birthplace, Greenway Plantation in Charles City County, Virginia
Woodburn Plantation, Tyler's residence 1813–1821
An engraving of Tyler in his mid-thirties (c. 1826) as Governor of Virginia
"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
1840 electoral vote map
1888 illustration of President Tyler receiving the news of President Harrison's death from Chief Clerk of the State Department Fletcher Webster
Official portrait of President Tyler by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1864
Whig cartoon depicting the effects of unemployment on a family that has Jackson's and Van Buren's portraits on the wall
The boundaries of the United States and neighboring nations as they appeared in 1843. The Webster–Ashburton Treaty had formalized the border of Maine in the northeast, while the Republic of Texas in the southwest had a disputed border with Mexico.
A lithograph of the Princeton disaster (1844)
An anti-Tyler satire lampoons his efforts to secure a second term. Tyler pushes the door shut on opponents Clay, Polk, Calhoun, and Jackson, as Uncle Sam demands that he let Clay in.
An oil portrait of Tyler's first wife, Letitia Christian Tyler, by an unknown artist
An oil portrait of Tyler's second wife, Julia Gardiner Tyler, by Francesco Anelli
An obelisk marks Tyler's grave at Hollywood Cemetery.
Tyler on a U.S. postage stamp, Issue of 1938

He faced a stalemate on domestic policy, although he had several foreign-policy achievements, including the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain and the Treaty of Wanghia with Qing China.

Siskiwit Bay

Isle Royale National Park

American national park consisting of Isle Royale and more than 400 small adjacent islands, as well as the surrounding waters of Lake Superior, in the state of Michigan.

American national park consisting of Isle Royale and more than 400 small adjacent islands, as well as the surrounding waters of Lake Superior, in the state of Michigan.

Siskiwit Bay
An abandoned copper mine shaft
Tobin Harbor Trail in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Moose swimming at Isle Royale.
Rocky shoreline
Isle Royale geologic map
Cross-section of the Lake Superior basin showing the tilted strata of volcanic rock that form Isle Royale
Floatplane taking off from Windigo on Washington Harbor—Beaver Island can be seen in the background at right
Isle Royale Queen IV at Copper Harbor

With the clarification to the Ojibwas of the 1842 Webster–Ashburton Treaty that was signed before the Treaty of La Pointe, the Ojibwas re-affirmed the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe in the 1844 Isle Royale Agreement, with the Grand Portage Band signing the agreement as an addendum to the 1842 treaty.

The Destruction of the Caroline by George Tattersall

Caroline affair

Diplomatic crisis beginning in 1837 involving the United States, Britain, and the Canadian independence movement.

Diplomatic crisis beginning in 1837 involving the United States, Britain, and the Canadian independence movement.

The Destruction of the Caroline by George Tattersall
1841 sketch by MacKenzie showing the body of Durfee lying on the ground [foreground] while the Burning wreck of the "Caroline" drifts toward the falls (Background)
The body of Durfee, illustrated in 1885

The diplomatic crisis was defused by the negotiations that led to the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842, in which both the U.S. and Britain admitted to wrongdoing.

The museum, standing in front of the restored soldier's barracks

Fort Malden

Defence fortification located in Amherstburg, Ontario.

Defence fortification located in Amherstburg, Ontario.

The museum, standing in front of the restored soldier's barracks
Location of Fort Malden just above Amherstburg
The single-storey Brick Barracks were built in 1820
Fort Malden, Amherstburg, 1959

This would have been described as the third stage of building development from 1840–1842; however, such plans never came to fruition as the United States and Britain signed the Webster–Ashburton Treaty after several years of negotiations.

The Northwest Angle in Minnesota, bordering Manitoba, Ontario, and Lake of the Woods

Northwest Angle

Part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota.

Part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota.

The Northwest Angle in Minnesota, bordering Manitoba, Ontario, and Lake of the Woods
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The northwest quarter of the Mitchell Map, showing the Lake of the Woods as roughly oval, and indicating that the head of the Mississippi River is not yet known
Reporting booth at Jim's Corner. Upon entering the Northwest Angle by road, the traveler must enter the booth and report to U.S. Customs via videophone. Before leaving the Northwest Angle by road, one must report to Canadian customs from the same booth.
Border crossing at the Angle
Most of the land area of the region is wooded, including the Northwest Angle State Forest.

The Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842 reaffirmed this border.

The Oregon Country/Columbia District stretched from 42°N to 54°40′N. The most heavily disputed portion is highlighted.

Oregon boundary dispute

19th-century territorial dispute over the political division of the Pacific Northwest of North America between several nations that had competing territorial and commercial aspirations in the region.

19th-century territorial dispute over the political division of the Pacific Northwest of North America between several nations that had competing territorial and commercial aspirations in the region.

The Oregon Country/Columbia District stretched from 42°N to 54°40′N. The most heavily disputed portion is highlighted.
Map of the Columbia River and its tributaries, showing modern political boundaries and cities.
George Canning has been appraised the most active Secretary of Foreign Affairs in maintaining the British claims of a division along the Columbia River.
Representative John Floyd was the most prominent early Congressional member in favor of extensive American claims in the Pacific Northwest.
George Simpson, manager of HBC operations in North America, reported in 1837 that the Pacific Northwest "may become an object of very great importance, and we are strengthening that claim to it ... by forming the nucleus of a colony through the establishment of farms, and the settlement of some of our retiring officers and servants as agriculturalists."
President James K. Polk was elected in 1844 in part from his support for substantial claims against the British. Much of this rhetoric was to make the United Kingdom accept the long tabled proposed division along the 49th parallel.
Senator Lewis Cass was a leading advocate of 54°40′, but backed away from the claim when it became untenable. Like James Buchanan, Cass had presidential ambitions and did not want to alienate Americans on either side of the Oregon Question.
Foreign Secretary Lord Aberdeen was committed to maintaining peaceable relations with the Americans, evaluating the disputed territory in the Oregon Question as unimportant.
The Oregon Territory, as established after the Oregon Treaty, superimposed over the current state boundaries.

Both diplomats became focused on settling the Aroostook War and formulated the Webster–Ashburton Treaty.

The remaining southern two bastions and curtain (wall) of Fort Montgomery, July 17, 2011. Note the numerous rifle loopholes on the lower level.

Fort Montgomery (Lake Champlain)

Second of two American forts built at the northernmost point of the American part of the lake: a first, unnamed fort built on the same site in 1816 and Fort Montgomery built in 1844.

Second of two American forts built at the northernmost point of the American part of the lake: a first, unnamed fort built on the same site in 1816 and Fort Montgomery built in 1844.

The remaining southern two bastions and curtain (wall) of Fort Montgomery, July 17, 2011. Note the numerous rifle loopholes on the lower level.

It was ultimately decided that a second fort would be constructed on the site after the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842 ceded strategically important Island Point, the site of the 1816 fort and the northernmost point on Lake Champlain, to the United States.

Location of the Republic of Indian Stream, bordered to the north by the British colony of Lower Canada and to the south by the American state of New Hampshire.

Republic of Indian Stream

Unrecognized republic in North America, along the section of the border that divides the current Canadian province of Quebec from the U.S. state of New Hampshire.

Unrecognized republic in North America, along the section of the border that divides the current Canadian province of Quebec from the U.S. state of New Hampshire.

Location of the Republic of Indian Stream, bordered to the north by the British colony of Lower Canada and to the south by the American state of New Hampshire.
New Hampshire historical marker (number 1) for the Republic of Indian Stream in Pittsburg

In 1842, the land dispute was definitively resolved by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty, and the land was assigned to New Hampshire.