# Werner Heisenberg

**HeisenbergW. HeisenbergHeisenberg, WernerWerner Karl HeisenbergHazenbergHeisenberg, Werner KarlWarner HeisenbergWerner-Heisenberg**

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.wikipedia

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### Matrix mechanics

**matrix formulationmatrix theoryHeisenberg representation**

In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated.

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

### Uncertainty principle

**Heisenberg uncertainty principleHeisenberg's uncertainty principleuncertainty relation**

He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which he published in 1927.

Introduced first in 1928, by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, it states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.

### Quantum mechanics

**quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory**

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

Early quantum theory was profoundly re-conceived in the mid-1920s by Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and others.

### Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen

**Heisenberg commutatorbreakthrough paperexploratory paper**

He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper.

"Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen" (English "Quantum theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations") was a breakthrough paper in quantum mechanics written by Werner Heisenberg, which appeared in Zeitschrift für Physik in September 1925.

### Atomic nucleus

**nucleusnucleiatomic nuclei**

He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957.

After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, models for a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons were quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko and Werner Heisenberg.

### Max Born

**BornBorn, M.Born M**

In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated.

In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics.

### Niels Bohr

**BohrNiels Henrik David BohrBohr, Niels**

He travelled to occupied Copenhagen where he met and discussed the German project with Niels Bohr.

Bohr mentored and collaborated with physicists including Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy, and Werner Heisenberg.

### Max Planck Society

**Max Planck InstituteMax-Planck-InstituteMax-Planck Institute**

He was director of the institute until it was moved to Munich in 1958, when it was expanded and renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics.

The Max Planck Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including luminaries such as Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

### Max Planck Institute for Physics

**Max-Planck Institut für PhysikKaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für PhysikMax Planck Institute**

Following World War II, he was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which soon thereafter was renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics.

It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director in its current location.

### Pascual Jordan

**Jordan**

In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated.

Together with Max Born and Werner Heisenberg, Jordan was a coauthor of an important series of papers on quantum mechanics.

### Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker

**von WeizsäckerCarl von WeizsäckerWeizsäcker**

At various times they included Erich Bagge, Felix Bloch, Ugo Fano, Siegfried Flügge, William Vermillion Houston, Friedrich Hund, Robert S. Mulliken, Rudolf Peierls, George Placzek, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Fritz Sauter, John C. Slater, Edward Teller, John Hasbrouck van Vleck, Victor Frederick Weisskopf, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Gregor Wentzel, and Clarence Zener.

He was the longest-living member of the team which performed nuclear research in Germany during the Second World War, under Werner Heisenberg's leadership.

### Erich Bagge

At various times they included Erich Bagge, Felix Bloch, Ugo Fano, Siegfried Flügge, William Vermillion Houston, Friedrich Hund, Robert S. Mulliken, Rudolf Peierls, George Placzek, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Fritz Sauter, John C. Slater, Edward Teller, John Hasbrouck van Vleck, Victor Frederick Weisskopf, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Gregor Wentzel, and Clarence Zener.

Bagge, a student of Werner Heisenberg for his doctorate and Habilitation, was engaged in German Atomic Energy research and the German nuclear energy project during the Second World War.

### Arnold Sommerfeld

**SommerfeldArnold Johannes Wilhelm SommerfeldA. Sommerfeld**

At Munich, he studied under Arnold Sommerfeld and Wilhelm Wien.

Later, at the University of Munich, Sommerfeld's students Ludwig Hopf and Werner Heisenberg would write their Ph.D. theses on this topic.

### Victor Weisskopf

**Victor Frederick WeisskopfVictor F. WeisskopfViki Weisskopf**

At various times they included Erich Bagge, Felix Bloch, Ugo Fano, Siegfried Flügge, William Vermillion Houston, Friedrich Hund, Robert S. Mulliken, Rudolf Peierls, George Placzek, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Fritz Sauter, John C. Slater, Edward Teller, John Hasbrouck van Vleck, Victor Frederick Weisskopf, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Gregor Wentzel, and Clarence Zener.

He did postdoctoral work with Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Wolfgang Pauli and Niels Bohr.

### Atom

**atomsatomic structureatomic**

Heisenberg recounted the philosophical conversations with his fellow students and teachers on understanding the atom while receiving his scientific training in Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen.

In 1925 Werner Heisenberg published the first consistent mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics (Matrix Mechanics).

### Siegfried Flügge

From 1936 to 1937, he was a teaching assistant to Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig.

### Ugo Fano

Fano spent 1936–37 with Werner Heisenberg in Leipzig.

### Quantum field theory

**quantum field theoriesquantum fieldquantum theory**

In early 1929, Heisenberg and Pauli submitted the first of two papers laying the foundation for relativistic quantum field theory.

Uniting these scattered ideas, a coherent discipline, quantum mechanics, was formulated between 1925 and 1926, with important contributions from de Broglie, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Erwin Schrödinger, Paul Dirac, and Wolfgang Pauli.

### Edward Teller

**TellerDr. Edward TellerEde Teller**

Werner Heisenberg said that it was the hardiness of Teller's spirit, rather than stoicism, that allowed him to cope so well with the accident.

### George Placzek

He worked with Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, Rudolf Peierls, Werner Heisenberg, Victor Weisskopf, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr, Lev Landau, Edoardo Amaldi, Emilio Segrè, Otto Frisch, Leon van Hove and many other prominent physicists of his time.

### Friedrich Hund

**Hund**

Hund worked with such prestigious physicists as Schrödinger, Dirac, Heisenberg, Max Born, and Walter Bothe.

### Germans

**Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans**

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

The work of David Hilbert, Max Planck and Albert Einstein was crucial to the foundation of modern physics, which Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger developed further.

### Felix Bloch

**BlochBloch, FelixF. Bloch**

Bloch graduated in 1927, and was encouraged by Debye to go to Leipzig to study with Werner Heisenberg.

### Paul Dirac

**DiracPaul Adrien Maurice DiracP. A. M. Dirac**

In 1928, the British mathematical physicist Paul Dirac had derived his relativistic wave equation of quantum mechanics, which implied the existence of positive electrons, later to be named positrons.

An anecdote recounted in a review of the 2009 biography tells of Werner Heisenberg and Dirac sailing on an ocean liner to a conference in Japan in August 1929.

### William V. Houston

**William Vermillion HoustonW. V. Houston**

In 1927 and 1928, Houston was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, which he used to go to Germany to do postgraduate study with Arnold Sommerfeld at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig.