West Germanic languageswikipedia
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
West GermanicWest Germanic languageWestGermanicWest Germanic dialectsWest Germanic branchWGmcWest Germanic-speakingclosely related languagesGermanic vernaculars

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360-400 million native speakers; German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 23 million native speakers.

Afrikaans

AfrikaansAfrikaans-speakingAfrikaans-language
The four most prevalent West Germanic languages are Afrikaans, English, German, and Dutch.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

North Germanic languages

ScandinavianNorth GermanicScandinavian languages
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The four most prevalent West Germanic languages are Afrikaans, English, German, and Dutch.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

German language

GermanGerman-languagede
The four most prevalent West Germanic languages are Afrikaans, English, German, and Dutch.
German (Deutsch ) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
The four most prevalent West Germanic languages are Afrikaans, English, German, and Dutch.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

Low German

Low SaxonLow Germannds
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
Low German or Low Saxon (Low German of Germany: Plattdüütsch or Neddersassisch; Low Saxon of the Netherlands: Nedersaksies; German: Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch, or Niedersächsisch; Nederduits; (also other dialectal variants)) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands.

Luxembourgish

LuxembourgishLuxemburgishltz
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch ( or ) (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.

Franconian languages

FranconianFranconian dialectsFranconian-speaking
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
Franconian (Frankisch; Frankies; Fränkisch; Francique) includes a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD. A famous likely speaker was Emperor Charlemagne.

North Sea Germanic

IngvaeonicNorth Sea GermanicIngvaeonic language
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots. Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (due to characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic".
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

Anglo-Frisian languages

Anglo-FrisianAnglo–FrisianAnglo Frisian
Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (due to characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic".
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.

Old Frisian

Old FrisianFrisianOld
Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (due to characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic".
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

Low Franconian languages

Low FranconianIstvaeonicLow Frankish
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.

Frankish language

FrankishOld FrankishOld Franconian
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *Frenkisk), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.

Old Saxon

SaxonOld SaxonSaxon language
It is a West Germanic language, closely related to the Anglo-Frisian languages.

Lombardic language

LombardicLangobardicLombard
Lombardic or Langobardic is an extinct West Germanic language that was spoken by the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic people who settled in Italy in the 6th century.

Northwest Germanic

Most agree that after East Germanic broke off (an event usually dated to the 2nd or 1st century BC), the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects: North Germanic, and the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely
It does not challenge the late 19th-century tri-partite division of the Germanic dialects into North Germanic, West Germanic and East Germanic, but proposes additionally that North and West Germanic (i.e. all surviving Germanic languages today) remained as a subgroup after the southward migration of the East Germanic tribes, only splitting into North and West Germanic later.

High German consonant shift

to varying degreessecond Germanic consonant shiftSecond Sound Shift
The High German consonant shift that occurred mostly during the 7th century AD in what is now southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland can be considered the end of the linguistic unity among the West Germanic dialects, although its effects on their own should not be overestimated.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.

Old English

Old EnglishAnglo-SaxonSaxon
Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (due to characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic".
Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.

West Frisian language

West FrisianFrisianWestern Frisian
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk, ; Fries ) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

High German languages

High GermanHighGerman
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
The High German languages are marked by the High German consonant shift, separating them from Low German and Low Franconian (Dutch) within the continental West Germanic dialect continuum.

North Frisian language

North FrisianFrisianNorthern Frisian
The language is part of the larger group of the West Germanic Frisian languages.

Bavarian language

BavarianAustro-BavarianBavarian dialect
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch ; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy, as well as Samnaun in Switzerland.

Istvaeones

IstvaeonicRhine GermanicIstaevones
In linguistics, the term "Istvaeonic languages" is also sometimes used in discussions about the grouping of the northwestern West Germanic languages, consisting of Frankish and its descendants (principally Old Dutch) as well as several closely related historical dialects.

Germanic umlaut

umlautumlautsi-mutation
The table gives two West Germanic examples (English and German) and two North Germanic examples (Swedish, from the east, and Icelandic, from the west).