West Germanic languages

West GermanicWest Germanic languageWestGermanicWest Germanic dialectsWest Germanic branchWest Germanic dialectWest Germanic tribesWest Germanic-speakingWGmc
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).wikipedia
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North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth Germanic
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360–400 million native speakers; German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 24 million native speakers.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.
German (Deutsch, ) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands (where it is the sole official language countrywide) and Belgium (as one of three official languages).

Low German

Low SaxonPlattdeutschLow German language
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish (which are daughter languages of Dutch and German, respectively), in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands.

Franconian languages

FranconianFranconian dialectsFranconian dialect
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish (which are daughter languages of Dutch and German, respectively), in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
]]Franconian (Frankisch; Frankies; Fränkisch) includes a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD.

Old Frisian

FrisianFlemishFrisian language
Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (due to characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic".
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

North Sea Germanic

IngvaeonicIngvaeonic languagesIngvaeonic language
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish (which are daughter languages of Dutch and German, respectively), in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

Anglo-Frisian languages

Anglo-FrisianAnglo–FrisianAnglo Frisian
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.

Northwest Germanic

It does not challenge the late 19th-century tri-partite division of the Germanic dialects into North Germanic, West Germanic and East Germanic, but proposes additionally that North and West Germanic (i.e. all surviving Germanic languages today) remained as a subgroup after the southward migration of the East Germanic tribes, only splitting into North and West Germanic later.

Low Franconian languages

Low FranconianLower FranconianLow Frankish
Low Franconian/Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch; Niederfränkisch; Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.

Weser-Rhine Germanic

IstvaeonicIstvaeonic languagesRhine-Weser Germanic
Weser-Rhine Germanic (German Weser-Rhein-Germanisch) is a term introduced by the German linguist Friedrich Maurer for the group of prehistoric West Germanic dialects ancestral to Low Franconian and Rhine Franconian, and ultimately to Dutch and the West Central German dialects.

Afrikaans

Afrikaans languageAfrikaans-speakingAfrikaans-language
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish (which are daughter languages of Dutch and German, respectively), in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

High German consonant shift

High German sound shiftRhenish Fansecond Germanic consonant shift
The High German consonant shift that occurred mostly during the 7th century AD in what is now southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland can be considered the end of the linguistic unity among the West Germanic dialects, although its effects on their own should not be overestimated.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian (due to characteristic features of its daughter languages, Anglo-Saxon/Old English and Old Frisian), linguists know almost nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic".
Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.

Rhotacism (sound change)

rhotacismrhotacizationrhotacized
All surviving Germanic languages, which are members of the North and West Germanic families, changed to, implying a more approximant-like rhotic consonant in Proto-Germanic.

Runic inscriptions

runic inscriptionElder Futhark inscriptionRunic script
Even today, the very small number of Migration Period runic inscriptions from this area—many of them illegible, unclear or consisting only of one word, often a name—is insufficient to identify linguistic features specific to the two supposed dialect groups.
Linguistically, the 3rd and 4th centuries correspond to the formation of Proto-Norse, just predating the separation of West Germanic into Anglo-Frisian, Low German and High German.

Germanic umlaut

umlauti-mutationRückumlaut
The table gives two West Germanic examples (English and German) and two North Germanic examples (Swedish, from the east, and Icelandic, from the west).

West Frisian language

West FrisianFrisianWood Frisian
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Westerlauwersk Frysk or simply Frysk, ; Westerlauwers Fries, ) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

Anglo-Saxons

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Once in Britain, these Germanic peoples eventually developed a shared cultural and linguistic identity as Anglo-Saxons; the extent of the linguistic influence of the native Romano-British population on the incomers is debatable.
Anglo-Saxon in linguistics is still used as a term for the original West Germanic component of the modern English language, which was later expanded and developed through the influence of Old Norse and Norman French, though linguists now more often refer to it as Old English.

North Frisian language

North FrisianFrisianFrisian, North
The language is part of the larger group of the West Germanic Frisian languages.

High German languages

High GermanHighGerman
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish (which are daughter languages of Dutch and German, respectively), in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
The High German languages are marked by the High German consonant shift, separating them from Low German and Low Franconian (Dutch) within the continental West Germanic dialect continuum.

Frisian languages

FrisianFrisian languageFriesian
The family also includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish (which are daughter languages of Dutch and German, respectively), in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, and Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots.
Frisian languages belong to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages, the most widespread language family in Europe and the world.

Istvaeones

IstaevonesIstvaeonicIstævones
In linguistics, the term "Istvaeonic languages" is also sometimes used in discussions about the grouping of the northwestern West Germanic languages, consisting of Frankish and its descendants (principally Old Dutch) as well as several closely related historical dialects.