Western Front (World War I)

Western FrontFranceFrance and Flanders 1914–18WesternFrance and Flanders 1918France and FlandersFrontFRANCE AND FLANDERS, 1916-18France and Flanders 1915–18Western Front of World War I
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.wikipedia
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Trench warfare

trenchestrenchentrenchment
Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918.
Trench warfare lasting for several years took place on the Western Front in World War I.

Battle of Verdun

VerdunVerdun 1916First Offensive Battle of Verdun
Among the most costly of these offensives were the Battle of Verdun, in 1916, with a combined 700,000 casualties (estimated), the Battle of the Somme, also in 1916, with more than a million casualties (estimated), and the Battle of Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres), in 1917, with 487,000 casualties (estimated).
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun ; Schlacht um Verdun ), was fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916 on the Western Front.

First Battle of the Marne

Battle of the MarneMarne 1914Marne
The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne.
The battle was a victory for the Allied Powers but led to four years of trench warfare stalemate on the Western Front.

Spring Offensive

German Spring OffensiveKaiserschlachtLudendorff Offensive
The German Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that ended the war of the Central Powers against Russia and Romania on the Eastern Front.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht ("Kaiser's Battle"), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918.

Battle of the Somme

SommeSomme Offensivethe Somme
Among the most costly of these offensives were the Battle of Verdun, in 1916, with a combined 700,000 casualties (estimated), the Battle of the Somme, also in 1916, with more than a million casualties (estimated), and the Battle of Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres), in 1917, with 487,000 casualties (estimated).
The battle was intended to hasten a victory for the Allies and was the largest battle of the war's Western Front.

Tank

tankstank commanderarmor
To break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front, both sides tried new military technology, including poison gas, aircraft, and tanks.
Tanks in World War I were developed separately and simultaneously by Great Britain and France as a means to break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front.

Hundred Days Offensive

Pursuit to MonsAdvance to VictoryHundred Days' Offensive
The unstoppable advance of the Allied armies during the Hundred Days Offensive of 1918 caused a sudden collapse of the German armies and persuaded the German commanders that defeat was inevitable.
Beginning with the Battle of Amiens (8–12 August) on the Western Front, the Allies pushed the Central Powers back, undoing their gains from the Spring Offensive.

Eastern Front (World War I)

Eastern FrontRussian FrontEastern
The German Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that ended the war of the Central Powers against Russia and Romania on the Eastern Front.
The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France.

Belgium

BelgianBELKingdom of Belgium
Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France.
Germany invaded Belgium in August 1914 as part of the Schlieffen Plan to attack France, and much of the Western Front fighting of World War I occurred in western parts of the country.

Front (military)

frontfrontsbattlefront
Between 1915 and 1917 there were several offensives along this front.
A typical front was the Western Front in France and Belgium in World War I.

Armistice of 11 November 1918

ArmisticeArmistice with Germany1918 Armistice with Germany
The German government surrendered in the Armistice of 11 November 1918, and the terms of peace were settled by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
Although the armistice ended the fighting on the Western Front, it had to be prolonged three times until the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on 28 June 1919, took effect on 10 January 1920.

Joseph Joffre

JoffreGeneral JoffreMarshal Joffre
After marching through Belgium, Luxembourg and the Ardennes, the Germans advanced into northern France in late August, where they met the French Army, under Joseph Joffre, and the divisions of the British Expeditionary Force under Field Marshal Sir John French.
Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.

British Expeditionary Force (World War I)

British Expeditionary ForceBEFOld Contemptibles
After marching through Belgium, Luxembourg and the Ardennes, the Germans advanced into northern France in late August, where they met the French Army, under Joseph Joffre, and the divisions of the British Expeditionary Force under Field Marshal Sir John French.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.

Treaty of Versailles

Versailles TreatyVersaillesVersailles Peace Treaty
The German government surrendered in the Armistice of 11 November 1918, and the terms of peace were settled by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
On the Western Front, the Allied forces launched the Hundred Days Offensive and decisively defeated the German western armies.

Allies of World War I

AlliesAlliedAllied Powers
The unstoppable advance of the Allied armies during the Hundred Days Offensive of 1918 caused a sudden collapse of the German armies and persuaded the German commanders that defeat was inevitable.
Theatre commanders like Douglas Haig on the Western Front or Edmund Allenby in Palestine then reported to the CIGS.

Siege of Maubeuge

MaubeugebesiegedDetails
A general Allied retreat followed, resulting in more clashes at the Battle of Le Cateau, the Siege of Maubeuge and the Battle of St. Quentin (also called the First Battle of Guise).
The Siege of Maubeuge took place from 24 August – 7 September 1914, at le camp retranché de Maubeuge (the Entrenched Camp of Maubeuge) the start of World War I on the Western Front.

Battle of Le Cateau

Le CateauMonsMons le Cateau
A general Allied retreat followed, resulting in more clashes at the Battle of Le Cateau, the Siege of Maubeuge and the Battle of St. Quentin (also called the First Battle of Guise).
The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on the Western Front during the First World War on 26 August 1914.

French Army

FrenchArmyFrench troops
At the outbreak of the First World War, the German Army, with seven field armies in the west and one in the east, executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, moving quickly through neutral Belgium to attack France, and then turning southwards to encircle the French Army and trap it on the German border.
During the war around 1,397,000 French soldiers were killed in action, mostly on the Western Front.

Yser Front

Ysera sectionbattles along the Yser River
Following the Battle of the Yser in October, the Belgian army controlled a 35 km length of West Flanders along the coast, known as the Yser Front, along the Yser river and the Yperlee canal, from Nieuwpoort to Boesinghe.
The Yser Front (Front de l'Yser, Front aan de IJzer or IJzerfront), also known as the West Flemish Front, was a section of the Western Front during World War I held by Belgian troops from October 1914 until 1918.

Race to the Sea

Race for the SeaadvancingARMENTIERES 1914
Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918.
Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of the German General Staff (Oberste Heeresleitung OHL) since 14 September, concluded that a decisive victory could not be achieved on the Western Front and that it was equally unlikely in the east.

First Battle of Ypres

Ypres 1914YpresGheluvelt
From 19 October until 22 November, the German forces made their final breakthrough attempt of 1914 during the First Battle of Ypres, which ended in a mutually-costly stalemate.
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, 19 October – 22 November 1914) was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium.

Division (military)

divisiondivisionsinfantry division
After marching through Belgium, Luxembourg and the Ardennes, the Germans advanced into northern France in late August, where they met the French Army, under Joseph Joffre, and the divisions of the British Expeditionary Force under Field Marshal Sir John French.
The 1st Division and part of the 2nd saw service during the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915 before later taking part in the fighting on the Western Front between 1916 and 1918 along with the 3rd, 4th and 5th.

Infiltration tactics

infiltrationhurricane bombardmentinfiltrate
Using short, intense "hurricane" bombardments and infiltration tactics, the German armies moved nearly 60 mi to the west, the deepest advance by either side since 1914, but the result was indecisive.
Initial German successes were stunning; of these, Hutier's 18th Army gained more than in less than a week – the farthest advance in the Western Front since the Race to the Sea had ended the war of movement in 1914.

Shell Crisis of 1915

Shell Crisiscrisis in inadequate artillery shell productionshell shortage
Since the British had used about one-third of their supply of artillery ammunition, General Sir John French blamed the failure on the shortage of ammunition, despite the early success.
Because of the stable lines on the Western Front, it was easy to build rail lines that delivered all the shells the factories could produce.

Battle of Loos

LoosLoos offensivea battle
The British retaliated, developing their own chlorine gas and using it at the Battle of Loos in September 1915.
The Battle of Loos took place from 25 September – 8 October 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.