Western philosophywikipedia
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Westernwestern philosophylate modern philosophyphilosophyWestern valuesWestern philosophicalwestern thoughtWestern traditionWestern philosophersWest

Western world

WesternWestthe West
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization (whilst Greece as having shaped the development of Rome): the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science and art, building designs and proportions, architecture; the latter due to its influence on law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering, and religion.

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagorasPythagoreans
546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe.
His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy.

Socrates

SocraticSocratesSocrate
A key figure in Greek philosophy is Socrates.
Socrates (, ; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

Plato

PlatoPlato’sdialogues
Plato was a student of Socrates.
He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the development of Western philosophy.

Hellenistic philosophy

HellenismHellenisticHellenistic philosophers
Hellenization and Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on almost all subsequent Western and Middle Eastern philosophers, including Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Western medieval, Jewish, and Islamic thinkers.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic period following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

Aristotle

AristotleAristotelianAristotelianism
This included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics, astronomy, and biology (Aristotle, for example, wrote on all of these topics).
His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy.

Pythagoreanism

PythagoreanPythagoreansPythagorean school
Pythagoreans hold that "all is number," giving formal accounts in contrast to the previous material of the Ionians.
Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato and through him, on all of Western philosophy.

Philosophy

philosophyphilosophicalphilosopher
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales (c. 624–546 BCE) and Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE) who practiced a "love of wisdom" (philosophia) and were also termed physiologoi (students of physis, or nature).

Augustine of Hippo

AugustineSt. AugustineSaint Augustine
The prominent figure of this period was Augustine of Hippo (one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity) who adopted Plato's thought and Christianized it in the 4th century and whose influence dominated medieval philosophy perhaps up to end of the era but was checked with the arrival of Aristotle's texts.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas AquinasAquinasThomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas, an academic philosopher and the father of Thomism, was immensely influential in Catholic Europe; he placed a great emphasis on reason and argumentation, and was one of the first to use the new translation of Aristotle's metaphysical and epistemological writing.
His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

HegelG. W. F. HegelGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German idealists, such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the members of Jena Romanticism (Friedrich Hölderlin, Novalis, and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel), transformed the work of Kant by maintaining that the world is constituted by a rational or mind-like process, and as such is entirely knowable.
Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheFriedrich NietzscheNietzschean
Arthur Schopenhauer's identification of this world-constituting process as an irrational will to live influenced later 19th- and early 20th-century thinking, such as the work of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ( or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

Critique of Pure Reason

transcendental aestheticCritique of Pure Reasonempirical realism
Late modern philosophy is usually considered to begin around the pivotal year of 1781, when Gotthold Ephraim Lessing died and Kant's Critique of Pure Reason appeared.
The First Critique is often viewed as culminating several centuries of early-modern philosophy, and inaugurating modern philosophy.

Baruch Spinoza

SpinozaBaruch SpinozaSpinozist
Other notable modern philosophers include Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant.
The work opposed Descartes' philosophy of mind–body dualism, and earned Spinoza recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers.

Logical positivism

logical positivismlogical positivistslogical empiricism
Analytic philosophers were shaped strongly by logical positivism, united by the notion that philosophical problems could and should be solved by attention to logic and language.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

Linguistic turn

linguistic turnlinguistic
Frege took "the linguistic turn," analyzing philosophical problems through language.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.

Alfred North Whitehead

WhiteheadAlfred North WhiteheadA. N. Whitehead
Russell's classic works The Principles of Mathematics, "On Denoting" and Principia Mathematica (with Alfred North Whitehead), aside from greatly promoting the use of mathematical logic in philosophy, set the ground for much of the research program in the early stages of the analytic tradition, emphasizing such problems as: the reference of proper names, whether 'existence' is a property, the nature of propositions, the analysis of definite descriptions, and discussions on the foundations of mathematics.
He developed a comprehensive metaphysical system which radically departed from most of western philosophy.

Arthur Schopenhauer

SchopenhauerArthur SchopenhauerSchopenhauer, Arthur
Arthur Schopenhauer's identification of this world-constituting process as an irrational will to live influenced later 19th- and early 20th-century thinking, such as the work of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Schopenhauer was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Eastern philosophy (e.g., asceticism, the world-as-appearance), having initially arrived at similar conclusions as the result of his own philosophical work.

Jena Romanticism

RomanticJena Romanticism
German idealists, such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the members of Jena Romanticism (Friedrich Hölderlin, Novalis, and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel), transformed the work of Kant by maintaining that the world is constituted by a rational or mind-like process, and as such is entirely knowable.
The movement is considered to have contributed to the development of German idealism in late modern philosophy.

David Hume

HumeDavid HumeHumean
Other notable modern philosophers include Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant.
Hume was just 23 years old when he started this work and it is now regarded as one of the most important in the history of Western philosophy.

Hermeneutics

hermeneuticshermeneutichermeneutical
20th-century movements such as German idealism, phenomenology, existentialism, modern hermeneutics, critical theory, structuralism, post-structuralism and others are included within this loose category.
It is one of the earliest (c. 360 B.C. ) extant philosophical works in the Western tradition to deal with the relationship between language and logic in a comprehensive, explicit and formal way.

Sigmund Freud

FreudSigmund FreudFreudian
The psychoanalytic work of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Jacques Lacan, Julia Kristeva, and others has also been influential in contemporary Continental thought.

The Phenomenology of Spirit

Phenomenology of Spiritunhappy consciousnessPhänomenologie des Geistes
Foremost was the work of Hegel, whose Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) and Science of Logic (1813–16) produced a "dialectical" framework for ordering of knowledge.
It had a profound effect in Western philosophy, and "has been praised and blamed for the development of existentialism, communism, fascism, death of God theology, and historicist nihilism."

19th-century philosophy

19th-century philosophy19th century philosophy19th-
The 19th century took the radical notions of self-organization and intrinsic order from Goethe and Kantian metaphysics, and proceeded to produce a long elaboration on the tension between systematization and organic development.
This is a partial list of schools of 19th-century philosophy (also known as late modern philosophy).

Richard Rorty

Richard RortyRortyRorty, Richard
Pragmatism was later worked on by neopragmatists Richard Rorty (who was the first to develop neopragmatist philosophy in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (1979)), Hilary Putnam, W. V. O. Quine, and Donald Davidson.
Rorty saw the idea of knowledge as a "mirror of nature" as pervasive throughout the history of western philosophy.