Western philosophy

Western thoughtWesternlate modern philosophyEuropean philosophyphilosophyWestern valuesWestern philosophicalWestern philosophersWestern philosophical traditionWestern tradition
Western philosophy refers to the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.wikipedia
1,854 Related Articles

Western world

WesternWestthe West
Western philosophy refers to the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization—Greece having heavily influenced Rome—the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science, aesthetics and art, building designs and proportions, architecture; the latter due to its influence on law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering and religion.

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoras of SamosPythagoreans
624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c.
His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
This included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics, astronomy, and biology (Aristotle, for example, wrote on all of these topics).
Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the "Father of Western Philosophy".

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
A key figure in Greek philosophy is Socrates.
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

Pythagoreanism

PythagoreanPythagoreansPythagorean school
Pythagoreans hold that "all is number," giving formal accounts in contrast to the previous material of the Ionians.
Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato and through him, on all of Western philosophy.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Plato was a student of Socrates.
He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy, along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle.

Hellenistic philosophy

HellenisticHellenismHellenistic philosophers
Hellenization and Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on almost all subsequent Western and Middle Eastern philosophers, including Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Western medieval, Jewish, and Islamic thinkers.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy and Middle Eastern philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic period following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas AquinasAquinasSaint Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas, an academic philosopher and the father of Thomism, was immensely influential in Catholic Europe; he placed a great emphasis on reason and argumentation, and was one of the first to use the new translation of Aristotle's metaphysical and epistemological writing. Philosophers from the Middle Ages include the Christian philosophers Augustine of Hippo, Boethius, Anselm, Gilbert de la Porrée, Peter Abelard, Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Jean Buridan; the Jewish philosophers Maimonides and Gersonides; and the Muslim philosophers Alkindus, Alfarabi, Alhazen, Avicenna, Algazel, Avempace, Abubacer, Ibn Khaldūn, and Averroes.
His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.

Middle Eastern philosophy

Middle Eastern philosophers
Hellenization and Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on almost all subsequent Western and Middle Eastern philosophers, including Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Western medieval, Jewish, and Islamic thinkers.
The works of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism had a significant influence on Greek philosophy and Roman philosophy.

Ionia

ancient IoniaIonicIonian
Western philosophy is generally said to begin in the Greek cities of western Asia Minor, or Ionia, with Thales of Miletus, who was active c.
Several centuries later Ionia was the place where Western philosophy began and was the homeland of Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and Heraclitus.

Baruch Spinoza

SpinozaBenedict de SpinozaBenedict Spinoza
Other notable modern philosophers include Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant.
The work opposed Descartes' philosophy of mind–body dualism, and earned Spinoza recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers.

Arthur Schopenhauer

SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulateSchopenauer
Arthur Schopenhauer's identification of this world-constituting process as an irrational will to live influenced later 19th- and early 20th-century thinking, such as the work of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Schopenhauer was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Eastern philosophy (e.g., asceticism, the world-as-appearance), having initially arrived at similar conclusions as the result of his own philosophical work.

Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure ReasonTranscendental AestheticEmpirical realism
Late modern philosophy is usually considered to begin around the pivotal year of 1781, when Gotthold Ephraim Lessing died and Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason appeared.
It has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy, and helped to bring about the development of German idealism.

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosopherphilosophyIslamic thought
Hellenization and Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on almost all subsequent Western and Middle Eastern philosophers, including Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Western medieval, Jewish, and Islamic thinkers.
Translated into Latin, these works began to appear in the West after the Renaissance and may have influenced Western philosophy and science.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
Other notable modern philosophers include Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant.
Hume was just 23 years old when he started this work and it is now regarded as one of the most important in the history of Western philosophy.

Logical positivism

logical positivistslogical empiricismlogical positivist
Analytic philosophers were shaped strongly by logical positivism, united by the notion that philosophical problems could and should be solved by attention to logic and language.
Logical positivism, later called logical empiricism, and both of which together are also known as neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was the verification principle (also known as the verifiability criterion of meaning).

Jena Romanticism

Jena romanticsEarly German RomanticismEarly Romanticism
German idealists, such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the members of Jena Romanticism (Friedrich Hölderlin, Novalis, and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel), transformed the work of Kant by maintaining that the world is constituted by a rational or mind-like process, and as such is entirely knowable.
The movement is considered to have contributed to the development of German idealism in late modern philosophy.

Alfred North Whitehead

WhiteheadA. N. WhiteheadA.N. Whitehead
Russell's classic works The Principles of Mathematics, "On Denoting" and Principia Mathematica (with Alfred North Whitehead), aside from greatly promoting the use of mathematical logic in philosophy, set the ground for much of the research program in the early stages of the analytic tradition, emphasizing such problems as: the reference of proper names, whether 'existence' is a property, the nature of propositions, the analysis of definite descriptions, and discussions on the foundations of mathematics.
He developed a comprehensive metaphysical system which radically departed from most of western philosophy.

Linguistic turn

linguistic
Frege took "the linguistic turn," analyzing philosophical problems through language.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relations between language, language users, and the world.

Goethean science

GoetheanGoetheGoethe's morphology
The 19th century took the radical notions of self-organization and intrinsic order from Goethean science and Kantian metaphysics, and proceeded to produce a long elaboration on the tension between systematization and organic development.
By the middle of the 1700s, Western philosophy had reached an ethical and epistemological cul-de-sac.

The Phenomenology of Spirit

Phenomenology of Spiritunhappy consciousnessPhenomenology
Foremost was the work of Hegel, whose Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) and Science of Logic (1813–16) produced a "dialectical" framework for ordering of knowledge.
It had a profound effect in Western philosophy, and "has been praised and blamed for the development of existentialism, communism, fascism, death of God theology, and historicist nihilism".

19th-century philosophy

19th century philosophy19th19th-
The 19th century took the radical notions of self-organization and intrinsic order from Goethean science and Kantian metaphysics, and proceeded to produce a long elaboration on the tension between systematization and organic development.
This is a partial list of schools of 19th-century philosophy (also known as late modern philosophy).

Ibn Tufail

Ibn TufaylAbubacerAbu Bakr ibn Al-Tufail
Philosophers from the Middle Ages include the Christian philosophers Augustine of Hippo, Boethius, Anselm, Gilbert de la Porrée, Peter Abelard, Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Jean Buridan; the Jewish philosophers Maimonides and Gersonides; and the Muslim philosophers Alkindus, Alfarabi, Alhazen, Avicenna, Algazel, Avempace, Abubacer, Ibn Khaldūn, and Averroes.
The work also had a "profound influence" on both classical Islamic philosophy and modern Western philosophy.

Hermeneutics

hermeneutichermeneuticalhermeneutically
20th-century movements such as German idealism, phenomenology, existentialism, modern hermeneutics (the theory and methodology of interpretation), critical theory, structuralism, post-structuralism and others are included within this loose category.
360 BCE ) extant philosophical works in the Western tradition to deal with the relationship between language and logic in a comprehensive, explicit and formal way:

Thales of Miletus

ThalesThalisThales Avionics
Western philosophy is generally said to begin in the Greek cities of western Asia Minor, or Ionia, with Thales of Miletus, who was active c. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales (c.