A report on Western theater of the American Civil War

Western Theater Overview (1861–1865)
Western Theater map at The Photographic History of the Civil War
From Belmont (November 1861) to Shiloh (April 1862)
From Corinth (May 1862) to Perryville (October 1862)
Operations against Vicksburg and Grant's Bayou Operations
Grant's operations against Vicksburg
From Vicksburg (December 1862 – July 1863) to Chickamauga (September 1863)
Tullahoma Campaign
Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga Campaign
Map of the Atlanta Campaign
Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Sherman's March to the Sea
Carolinas Campaign

The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

- Western theater of the American Civil War
Western Theater Overview (1861–1865)

62 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

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Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

During 1861–1862 in the war's Western Theater, the Union made significant permanent gains—though in the war's Eastern Theater the conflict was inconclusive.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880

Ulysses S. Grant

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American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
220px
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

He joined the Union Army after the American Civil War broke out in 1861 and rose to prominence after winning several early Union victories on the Western Theater.

Photograph by Mathew Brady of Sherman at Washington, D.C., in May 1865. The black ribbon of mourning on his left arm is for President Abraham Lincoln.

William Tecumseh Sherman

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American soldier, businessman, educator, and author.

American soldier, businessman, educator, and author.

Photograph by Mathew Brady of Sherman at Washington, D.C., in May 1865. The black ribbon of mourning on his left arm is for President Abraham Lincoln.
Sherman's childhood home in Lancaster
Young Sherman in military uniform
California Registered Historic Landmark plaque at the location in Jackson Square, San Francisco, of the branch of the Bank of Lucas, Turner & Co. that Sherman directed from 1853 to 1857
Two cannons on display in front of the Military Science building at Louisiana State University, which were used at the Battle of Fort Sumter and procured by Sherman for the university after the U.S. Civil War.
Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. undefined 1864
Oil portrait of Sherman by George P. A. Healy, 1866
Engraving depicting Admiral Porter's flotilla of gunships and transports arriving below Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. General Sherman is rowing out to the flagship, the USS Benton, in a yawl.
Map of the Battles for Chattanooga, 1863
Map of Sherman's campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas, 1864–1865
Sherman on horseback at Federal Fort No. 7, after the Atlanta Campaign, September 1864
Green–Meldrim House, which served as Sherman's headquarters after his capture of Savannah in December 1864
The Burning of Columbia, South Carolina (1865) by William Waud for Harper's Weekly
From left to right, Sherman, Grant, Lincoln, and Porter meet on board the River Queen on March 27, 1865, near City Point, Virginia. The 1868 oil painting The Peacemakers by G. P. A. Healy is in the White House collection.
Sherman with Howard, Logan, Hazen, Davis, Slocum, and Mower, photographed by Mathew Brady, May 1865
Portrait by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy, between 1865 and 1880
Photograph by G. N. Barnard of Sherman's troops destroying a railroad in Atlanta, 1864
An 1868 engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting the March to the Sea
Map of Sherman's advance from Atlanta to Goldsboro
Cover of sheet music for a song celebrating the March to the Sea (1865)
Sherman (third from left) and other Indian Peace Commissioners in council with native chiefs and headmen, at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868
Portrait of Sherman in the frontispiece of the second edition of his Memoirs (1886). The engraving is based on a photograph taken ca. 1885 by Napoleon Sarony.
Shoulder strap insignia, introduced by Sherman in 1872 for his use as General of the Army
Sherman in his later years, in civilian evening clothes
Sherman's death mask
William Tecumseh Sherman monument by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, 1902, located at Grand Army Plaza in Manhattan, New York, incorporates a statue of Nike titled Victory

Sherman commanded a brigade of volunteers at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861 before being transferred to the Western Theater.

The Siege of Vicksburg

Army of the Tennessee

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The Siege of Vicksburg
Brigadier General Grant and staff, Cairo, October 1861
Battle of Fort Henry and the movements to Fort Donelson.
Shiloh: Crucible of the Army of the Tennessee
General Henry Wager Halleck
Grant's Operations against Vicksburg
Grant discussing the terms of the capitulation of Vicksburg with defeated Confederate General Pemberton
Major General Sherman, second commander of the Army of the Tennessee
Major General McPherson, third commander of the Army of the Tennessee
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman's Carolinas Campaign
General Sherman at war's end with Generals Howard, Logan, Hazen, Davis, Slocum, and Mower; Howard and Logan were the last two commanders of the Army of the Tennessee
Sherman's Atlanta Campaign
Confederate
Union

The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River.

Braxton Bragg

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A Little More Grape, Capt. Bragg by N. Currier
Braxton Bragg, CSA
Western Theater operations from the Siege of Corinth through the Kentucky Campaign
Tullahoma Campaign
Initial movements in the Chickamauga Campaign, August 15 – September 8, 1863
Longstreet's breakthrough at the Battle of Chickamauga, mid-day September 20
Battles of Chattanooga, November 24–25, 1863
Carolinas Campaign
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, morning of April 6, 1862
Confederate
Union

Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was an American army officer during the Second Seminole War and Mexican–American War and Confederate army officer who served as a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, serving in the Western Theater.

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Gen. Braxton Bragg, commanding generals of the Chattanooga campaign

Chattanooga campaign

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Series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War.

Series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War.

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Gen. Braxton Bragg, commanding generals of the Chattanooga campaign
Chattanooga viewed from the north bank of the Tennessee River, 1863. The Union Army pontoon bridge is shown on the left, Lookout Mountain at the right rear. The small hill in front of Lookout Mountain is Cameron Hill, which was significantly flattened during 20th century development of the city.
Engraving of the view north from Point Lookout on Lookout Mountain over the Chattanooga region, from Battles and Leaders, 1885
USS Chattanooga, Cracker Liner
Hazen's men land at Brown's Ferry
Battle of Wauhatchie
Orchard Knob in 1864
Battle monuments on Orchard Knob
Orchard Knob, c1900-1915
Cravens house on Lookout Mountain
Battles of Chattanooga, November 24–25, 1863
Battle of Chattanooga by Thure de Thulstrup. Ulysses S. Grant uses a field glass to follow the Union assault on Missionary Ridge. Grant is joined by Generals Gordon Granger (left) and George H. Thomas.
Captured artillery, c. 1865
National cemetery at Chattanooga with a view of Lookout Mountain in the distance
<center>Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge</center>
Federal supply lines and Wheeler's October 1863 raid
Confederate
Union
Battle of Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863 Confederate
Union

Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was given command of Union forces in the West, now consolidated under the Division of the Mississippi.

1864 standardization flag of the army.

Army of Tennessee

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The principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War.

The principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War.

1864 standardization flag of the army.
Joseph Johnston
John Bell Hood
Movements of the Army of Tennessee, 1862 until 1865

It was formed in late 1862 and fought until the end of the war in 1865, participating in most of the significant battles in the Western Theater.

The  Battle of Chickamauga  by Kurz & Allison

Battle of Chickamauga

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The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on September 19–20, 1863, between U.S. and Confederate forces in the American Civil War, marked the end of a Union offensive, the Chickamauga Campaign, in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia.

The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on September 19–20, 1863, between U.S. and Confederate forces in the American Civil War, marked the end of a Union offensive, the Chickamauga Campaign, in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia.

The  Battle of Chickamauga  by Kurz & Allison
Chickamauga Campaign, movements 15–30 August 1863
Cannon row
Chickamauga Campaign, movements 10–12 September 1863
Davis's Cross Roads, September 11, 1863
Lee and Gordon's Mill 1860-1865
Lee and Gordon's Mills September 2008
September 18 movements on the eve of the Battle of Chickamauga
Confederate troops advancing at Chickamauga (drawing by Alfred R. Waud)
Actions, morning of September 19
Brotherton Cabin
Actions, early afternoon of September 19
Actions, late afternoon to dark, September 19
Polk's Right Wing assaults, morning of September 20
Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood chose to obey a questionable order from Rosecrans to reposition his division. In doing so, he opened up a crucial gap in the Union lines.
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Snodgrass house
Defense of Horseshoe Ridge and Union retreat, afternoon and evening of September 20
Snodgrass house as depicted in Terrors and horrors of prison life; or, Six months a prisoner at Camp Chase, Ohio (1907) by William Hiram Duff
Defense of Horseshoe Ridge and Union retreat, brigade details
Horseshoe Ridge, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, 2008
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<center>Col.
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Brig. Gen.
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Tullahoma Campaign
Confederate
Union
Initial movements in the Chickamauga Campaign, August 15 – September 8, 1863
Confederate
Union

It was the first major battle of the war fought in Georgia, the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater, and involved the second-highest number of casualties after the Battle of Gettysburg.

Flag of the United States from 1863 until 1865 (35 states/stars)

Union Army

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The land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

The land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

Flag of the United States from 1863 until 1865 (35 states/stars)
Union private infantry uniform
Recruiting poster for the 1st Battalion New York Mounted Rifles
General George B. McClellan with staff and dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. George W. Morell, Lt. Col. A.V. Colburn, Gen. McClellan, Lt. Col. N.B. Sweitzer, Prince de Joinville (son of King Louis Philippe of France), and on the very right – the prince's nephew, Count de Paris
The champions of the Union – 1861 lithograph by Currier & Ives
Officers of the 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Regiment, Washington, D.C. (1865)
Non-commissioned officers of the 93rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
The 26th U.S. Colored Volunteer Infantry on parade, Camp William Penn, Pennsylvania, 1865
Twenty-year-old German immigrant John Haag of Company B, 26th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment (August 1862)
Portrait of an African American Union soldier at Benton Barracks
Kady Brownell, a vivandière from Rhode Island
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863

Army of the Tennessee, the most famous army in the Western Theater, operating through Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, and the Carolinas; commanded by Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, and Oliver O. Howard.

Battle of Missionary Ridge

Army of the Cumberland

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Battle of Missionary Ridge
Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans
Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas

The Army of the Cumberland was one of the principal Union armies in the Western Theater during the American Civil War.