Wh-movementwikipedia
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
wh-movementwh''-frontingwh-frontingwh''-movementwh-in-situfrontedislandsisland constraintsinverse word order in questionsmoved to the start

Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.

Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingunbounded scramblingword scrambling
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.

Syntactic movement

movementtracesyntactic movement
In languages with wh-movement, sentences or clauses with a wh-word show a special word order that has the wh-word (or phrase containing the wh-word) appear at the front of the sentence or clause (Who do you think about?) instead of in a more canonical position later in the sentence (I think about you) The opposite is called wh in situ.
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Topicalization

topicalizationtopicalizednon-topicalised
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).

Question

questionwh-questionanswer
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
(In some languages the formation of such questions may involve wh-movement – see the section below for grammatical description.) The name derives from the fact that most of the English interrogative words (with the exception of how) begin with the letters wh.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
Questions are marked by do-support, wh-movement (fronting of question words beginning with wh-) and word order inversion with some verbs.

John R. Ross

RossRoss, John RobertJohn R. “Haj” Ross
Pied-piping was first identified by John R. Ross in his 1967 dissertation.
Ross's 1967 MIT dissertation is a landmark in syntactic theory and documents in great detail Ross's discovery of islands.

Extraposition

extraposition
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
This aspect of extraposition is unlike topicalization and wh-fronting, two other mechanisms that often generate discontinuities.

Interrogative

interrogativeinterrogative sentenceinterrogative mood
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
However, in terms of word order, the interrogative word (or the phrase it is part of) is brought to the start of the sentence (an example of wh-fronting) in many languages.

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject–auxiliary inversionsubject-auxiliary inversioninversion
Wh-fronting in main clauses is often reliant on subject-auxiliary inversion.
In this case the subject remains before the verb (it can be said that wh-fronting takes precedence over subject–auxiliary inversion):

Pied-piping

pied-pipingpied-piped
Many instances of wh-fronting involve pied-piping.
While pied-piping is most visible in cases of wh-fronting of information questions and relative clauses, it is not limited to wh-fronting, but rather it can be construed as occurring with most any type of discontinuity (extraposition, scrambling, topicalization).

Syntax

syntaxsyntacticsyntactical
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.

Pied Piper of Hamelin

Pied PiperThe Pied Piper of HamelinPied Piper of Hamelin
Pied-piping occurs when a fronted wh-word (or otherwise focused word) pulls an entire encompassing phrase to the front of the clause with it, i.e. it "pied-pipes" the other words of the phrase with it to the front of the clause (see the Pied Piper of Hamelin).
In linguistics, pied-piping is the common name for the ability of question words and relative pronouns to drag other words along with them when brought to the front, as part of the phenomenon called Wh-movement.

Coordination (linguistics)

coordinationcoordinatedcoordinate structure
In coordination, extraction out of a conjunct of a coordinate structure is possible only if this extraction affects all the conjuncts of the coordinate structure equally.
In Transformational Grammar, the interaction of coordination and extraction (e.g. wh-fronting) has generated a lot of interest.

Dependency grammar

dependency grammardependentdependency
Comprehensive dependency grammar accounts of topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition are mostly absent from many established dependency-based frameworks.

Filler (linguistics)

fillerfillersfiller word
The term filler also has a separate use in the syntactic description of wh-movement constructions.

Vietnamese grammar

Vietnamese classifier
Vietnamese is head-initial, has a noun classifier system, is pro-drop (and pro copula-drop), wh-in-situ, and allows verb serialization.

Locality (linguistics)

localitydomainisland constraint
Example (24) is an example of a wh-island violation.

Parasitic gap

parasitic gapparasitic gaps
An aspect of parasitic gaps that makes them particularly mysterious is the fact they usually appear inside islands to extraction.

Resumptive pronoun

resumptive pronounresumptive
A resumptive pronoun is a personal pronoun appearing in a relative clause, which restates the antecedent after a pause or interruption (such as an embedded clause, series of adjectives, or a wh-island).

Joseph E. Aoun

Northeastern UniversityAoun, JosephJoseph E. Aoun
As a theoretical syntactician, he is known for his work on Logical Form and wh-movement.

Attraction (grammar)

Attraction
Agreement attraction not only appears with Subject Verb Agreement, but also with Object Verb agreement in WH-movement in English.

Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩

wine–whine mergerwine''–''whine'' mergerwine-whine merger
In reference to this English order, a common cross-lingual grammatical phenomenon affecting interrogative words is called wh-movement.

Verbum dicendi

verbum dicendiVerba dicendiverb of speech
Another example is that wh-movement out of an embedded direct quote is prohibited, as seen in (4)a below.