Wh-movement

wh''-frontingwh-frontingfrontedisland constraintsislandswh''-movementwh-in-situextractionextraction islandsinverse word order in questions
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.wikipedia
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Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.

Question

answerwh-questionquestions
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
(In some languages the formation of such questions may involve wh-movement – see the section below for grammatical description.) The name derives from the fact that most of the English interrogative words (with the exception of how) begin with the letters wh.

Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingScramblescrambled
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.

Syntactic movement

movementtracemovements
In languages with wh-movement, sentences or clauses with a wh-word show a special word order that has the wh-word (or phrase containing the wh-word) appear at the front of the sentence or clause (Who do you think about?) instead of in a more canonical position later in the sentence (I think about you) The opposite is called wh in situ.
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Topicalization

topicalizedfrontingnon-topicalised
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
Questions are marked by do-support, wh-movement (fronting of question words beginning with wh-) and word order inversion with some verbs.

Interrogative

interrogative sentenceinterrogative moodQuestions
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
However, in terms of word order, the interrogative word (or the phrase it is part of) is brought to the start of the sentence (an example of wh-fronting) in many languages.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
Wh-movement

Extraposition

Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.
This aspect of extraposition is unlike topicalization and wh-fronting, two other mechanisms that often generate discontinuities.

John R. Ross

RossHaj" RossJohn R. “Haj” Ross
Pied-piping was first identified by John R. Ross in his 1967 dissertation.
Ross's 1967 MIT dissertation is a landmark in syntactic theory and documents in great detail Ross's discovery of islands.

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject-auxiliary inversioninversioninversion of subject and auxiliary
Wh-fronting in main clauses is often reliant on subject-auxiliary inversion.
In this case the subject remains before the verb (it can be said that wh-fronting takes precedence over subject–auxiliary inversion):

Pied-piping

pied-piped
Many instances of wh-fronting involve pied-piping.
While pied-piping is most visible in cases of wh-fronting of information questions and relative clauses, it is not limited to wh-fronting, but rather it can be construed as occurring with most any type of discontinuity (extraposition, scrambling, topicalization).

Pied Piper of Hamelin

Pied PiperThe Pied Piper of HamelinThe Pied Piper
Pied-piping occurs when a fronted wh-word (or otherwise focused word) pulls an entire encompassing phrase to the front of the clause with it, i.e. it "pied-pipes" the other words of the phrase with it to the front of the clause (see the Pied Piper of Hamelin).
In linguistics, pied-piping is the common name for the ability of question words and relative pronouns to drag other words along with them when brought to the front, as part of the phenomenon called Wh-movement.

Coordination (linguistics)

coordinationcoordinatedcoordinate structure
In coordination, extraction out of a conjunct of a coordinate structure is possible only if this extraction affects all the conjuncts of the coordinate structure equally.
In Transformational Grammar, the interaction of coordination and extraction (e.g. wh-fronting) has generated a lot of interest.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
Dependency grammar
Comprehensive dependency grammar accounts of topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition are mostly absent from many established dependency-based frameworks.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.

Interrogative word

interrogative pronouninterrogativeinterrogative pronouns
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.

List of Latin-script digraphs

ngnjrr
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.

Relative clause

relativerelative clausesfree relative clause
The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.

Generative grammar

generative linguisticsgenerativegenerative phonology
Historically, the name wh-movement stems from early generative grammar (1960s and 1970s) and was a reference to the transformational analysis of the day in which the wh-expression appeared in its canonical position at deep structure and then moved leftward out of that position to land in its derived position at the front of the sentence/clause at surface structure.

Transformational grammar

transformationaltransformational generative grammartransformational-generative grammar
Historically, the name wh-movement stems from early generative grammar (1960s and 1970s) and was a reference to the transformational analysis of the day in which the wh-expression appeared in its canonical position at deep structure and then moved leftward out of that position to land in its derived position at the front of the sentence/clause at surface structure.

Deep structure and surface structure

deep structureunderlying structureD-structure
Historically, the name wh-movement stems from early generative grammar (1960s and 1970s) and was a reference to the transformational analysis of the day in which the wh-expression appeared in its canonical position at deep structure and then moved leftward out of that position to land in its derived position at the front of the sentence/clause at surface structure.

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
These examples illustrate that wh-fronting occurs when a constituent is questioned that appears to the right of the finite verb in the corresponding declarative sentence.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
b. When do they want to visit us? – The adjunct corresponding to tomorrow has been wh-fronted as the wh-word when.

Predicative expression

predicativepredicative adjectivepredicatively
b. What is she? – The predicative adjective corresponding to happy has been fronted as the wh-word what.