Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheatwheat graincracked wheatgraingolden wheathard red wheatsMarquis wheatwheat (''Triticum'' spp.)
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.wikipedia
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Common wheat

bread wheatwheatTriticum aestivum
The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. These have three sets of paired chromosomes, three times as many as in diploid wheat.
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize.
Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice.

Poaceae

grassturfgrass family
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as forage, building materials (bamboo, thatch, straw) and fuel (ethanol).

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac sprue
In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a composite of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye.

Fruit

fruitsfruitingseed pods
Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.
On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, and wheat grains.

Emmer

emmer wheatT. turgidumspelt
Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Most tetraploid wheats (e.g. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. speltoides. The unknown grass has never been identified among now surviving wild grasses, but the closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides. The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection.
Emmer wheat or hulled wheat is a type of awned wheat.

Einkorn wheat

einkornT. monococcumwild einkorn
Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, [malt] and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, kamut, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and gluten-containing cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives) may have a role in the development of symptoms.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, or sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Green Revolution

techniquesagricultural revolutioncommercial large-scale monoculture
Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines and reaping machines (the 'combine harvester'), tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties (see Green Revolution and Norin 10 wheat). Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by Japanese wheat breeders to produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields worldwide, and were major factors in the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico and Asia, an initiative led by Norman Borlaug.
The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals, and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization.

Cereal

graincerealsgrains
In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance.

Combine harvester

combinescombine harvesterscombine
Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines and reaping machines (the 'combine harvester'), tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties (see Green Revolution and Norin 10 wheat).
Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), sorghum, soybeans, flax (linseed), sunflowers and canola.

Norin 10 wheat

Norin 10semi-dwarf wheat
Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines and reaping machines (the 'combine harvester'), tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties (see Green Revolution and Norin 10 wheat). Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by Japanese wheat breeders to produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields worldwide, and were major factors in the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico and Asia, an initiative led by Norman Borlaug.
Norin 10 wheat (小麦農林10号) is a semi-dwarf wheat cultivar with very large ears that was bred by Gonjiro Inazuka at an experimental station in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

Spelt

spelt crustT. speltaSpelt bread
Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. These have three sets of paired chromosomes, three times as many as in diploid wheat.
Spelt (Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum ), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC.

Norman Borlaug

Norman E. BorlaugDr. Norman BorlaugNorman Ernest Borlaug
Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by Japanese wheat breeders to produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields worldwide, and were major factors in the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico and Asia, an initiative led by Norman Borlaug.
He took up an agricultural research position in Mexico, where he developed semi-dwarf, high-yield, disease-resistant wheat varieties.

Durum

durum wheathard wheatT. durum
Most tetraploid wheats (e.g. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. speltoides. The unknown grass has never been identified among now surviving wild grasses, but the closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides. The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection.
durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.

Rye

winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
Wild grasses in the genus Triticum and related genera, and grasses such as rye have been a source of many disease-resistance traits for cultivated wheat breeding since the 1930s.
It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (genus Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, bread, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder.

Grain

grainsfood grainfood grains
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Thus, major global commodity markets exist for maize, rice, soybeans, wheat and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops.

Wheat leaf rust

wheat rustbrownCereal crops
The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust.
Wheat leaf rust is a fungal disease that affects wheat, barley and rye stems, leaves and grains.

Whole grain

whole wheatwhole-grainwhole grains
When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber.
Wheat (spelt, emmer, farro einkorn, Kamut, durum)

Wheat yellow rust

yellowwheat stripe rustPuccinia striiformis'' f.sp. ''tritici
The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust.
Wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici), also known as wheat stripe rust, is one of the three wheat rust diseases principally found in wheat grown in cooler environments.

Mycosphaerella graminicola

Septoria tritici blotchseptoria leaf blotchseptoria blotch
The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust.
It is a wheat plant pathogen causing septoria leaf blotch that is difficult to control due to resistance to multiple fungicides.

Eyespot (wheat)

eyespotEyespot = foot rot, strawbreakerEyespot of wheat
The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust.
Eyespot is an important fungal disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungus Tapesia yallundae (syn: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides; W-type [anamorph]; Oculimacula yallundae) and Tapesia acuformis (syn: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides; R-type [anamorph]; Oculimacula acuformis). It is also called Strawbreaker. Eyespot is more severe where wheat is grown continuously and when the weather is cool and moist.

Taxonomy of wheat

many species of wheatwheat taxonomyhexaploid bread wheat
The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum).
During 10,000 years of cultivation, numerous forms of wheat, many of them hybrids, have developed under a combination of artificial and natural selection.