Whig Party (United States)

John Quincy Adams, the 6th president, became a Whig congressman later in his career.
Henry Clay, a founder of the Whig Party in the 1830s and its 1844 presidential nominee
Daniel Webster, a leading Whig from New England
William Henry Harrison, a two-time presidential candidate who became the first Whig president in 1841 but died just one month into office
William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren in the 1840 presidential election, thereby becoming the first Whig president
President John Tyler clashed with congressional Whigs and was expelled from the party.
Zachary Taylor served in the Mexican-American War and later won the 1848 presidential election as the Whig nominee.
The United States settled the Texas-Mexico border and acquired portions of seven current states in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Portions of present-day Arizona and New Mexico were later acquired in the 1853 Gadsden Purchase.
A political cartoon satirizing the candidacy of either Zachary Taylor or Winfield Scott in the 1848 presidential election
Millard Fillmore, the last Whig president
Gen. Winfield Scott, the unsuccessful Whig candidate in the 1852 presidential election
Whig journalist Horace Greeley
John J. Crittenden, an influential Whig leader who later established the short-lived Constitutional Union Party to contest the election of 1860
U.S. presidential election results from 1828 to 1852. Darker shades of blue indicate states that generally voted for the Democratic Party, while darker shades of yellow/brown indicate states that generally voted for the Whig or National Republican Party.
Charles Sumner, an anti-slavery "Conscience Whig" who later joined the Republican Party
Edward Everett, a pro-South "Cotton Whig"
Abraham Lincoln, a former Whig congressman, won the 1860 presidential election on the Republican ticket.
John Marshall Harlan, who began his career as a Whig officeholder, served on the Supreme Court from 1877 to 1911.

Political party that espoused traditionalist conservatism in the United States during the middle of the 19th century.

- Whig Party (United States)

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Second Party System

Historians and political scientists use Second Party System to periodize the political party system operating in the United States from about 1828 to 1852, after the First Party System ended.

Democratic poster in 1840 warning that Whigs' Log Cabin campaign was a trap for poor people

Two major parties dominated the political landscape: the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and from other opponents of Jackson.

William H. Seward

American politician who served as United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as governor of New York and as a United States Senator.

Seward's wife Frances Adeline Seward
Gubernatorial portrait of William H. Seward
Seward around 1844. Painting by Henry Inman.
Seward in 1851
Seward in 1859
In this March 1860 cartoon, Seward serves "mild beer" in his February 29, 1860, address to position himself as a moderate after the "irrepressible conflict" speech.
Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Seward photographed by the studio of Mathew Brady
Seward's little bell, as depicted in a hostile postwar cartoon
Running The "Machine"
An 1864 cartoon mocking Lincoln's cabinet depicts Seward, William Fessenden, Lincoln, Edwin Stanton, Gideon Welles and other members
Lewis Powell attacking Frederick Seward after attempting to shoot him
Medal presented to George F. Robinson for saving Seward's life
Thomas Nast cartoon from before the 1866 midterm elections. Seward is depicted as Johnson's grand vizier, motioning for the execution of Thaddeus Stevens, and is seen again in the inset, scars from the assassination attempt visible.
Johnson, as Mercutio, wishes a plague on both their Houses (of Congress) as Seward (as Romeo, right) leans over him. Alfred Waud cartoon from 1868.
Signing the Alaska Purchase. Seward is seated at center.
Thomas Nast cartoon on Alaska, 1867. Seward hopes that the purchase will help cool Johnson's fevered political situation.
Statue of Seward by Randolph Rogers in Madison Square Park, New York City

Four years later, he became the gubernatorial nominee of the Whig Party.

John Quincy Adams

American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the 6th president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady
Adams's birthplace in Quincy, Massachusetts
1815 US passport issued by John Quincy Adams at London.
Adams portrait – Gilbert Stuart, 1818
Painting of John Quincy Adams by Thomas Sully, 1824
In the Adams–Onís Treaty, the United States acquired Florida and set the western border of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.
1824 presidential election results
General Andrew Jackson, Adams's opponent in the 1824 and 1828 United States presidential elections
Painting of Quincy Adams by Charles Osgood, 1828
Quincy Adams appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State
1828 presidential election results
Daguerreotype of Quincy Adams by Philip Haas, 1843
Portrait of Quincy Adams by William Hudson, 1844
John Quincy Adams, c. 1840s, Unknown author
BEP engraved portrait of Adams as president
Adams's portrait at the U.S. National Portrait Gallery by George Bingham c. 1850 copy of an 1844 original
Adams's cenotaph at the Congressional Cemetery
John Quincy Adams's original tomb at Hancock Cemetery, across the street from United First Parish Church
Presidential Dollar of John Quincy Adams
Official portrait of Adams by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1858
Peacefield - John Quincy Adam's Home
Tombs of Presidents John Adams (far left) and John Quincy Adams (right) and their wives Abigail and Louisa, in a family crypt beneath the United First Parish Church.

Initially a Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party.

John Tyler

The 10th president of the United States, serving from 1841 to 1845, after briefly holding office as the 10th vice president in 1841.

Tyler, c. 1861
Tyler's birthplace, Greenway Plantation in Charles City County, Virginia
Woodburn Plantation, Tyler's residence 1813–1821
An engraving of Tyler in his mid-thirties (c. 1826) as Governor of Virginia
"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
1840 electoral vote map
1888 illustration of President Tyler receiving the news of President Harrison's death from Chief Clerk of the State Department Fletcher Webster
Official portrait of President Tyler by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1864
Whig cartoon depicting the effects of unemployment on a family that has Jackson's and Van Buren's portraits on the wall
The boundaries of the United States and neighboring nations as they appeared in 1843. The Webster–Ashburton Treaty had formalized the border of Maine in the northeast, while the Republic of Texas in the southwest had a disputed border with Mexico.
A lithograph of the Princeton disaster (1844)
An anti-Tyler satire lampoons his efforts to secure a second term. Tyler pushes the door shut on opponents Clay, Polk, Calhoun, and Jackson, as Uncle Sam demands that he let Clay in.
An oil portrait of Tyler's first wife, Letitia Christian Tyler, by an unknown artist
An oil portrait of Tyler's second wife, Julia Gardiner Tyler, by Francesco Anelli
An obelisk marks Tyler's grave at Hollywood Cemetery.
Tyler on a U.S. postage stamp, Issue of 1938

He was elected vice president on the 1840 Whig ticket with President William Henry Harrison, succeeding to the presidency after Harrison's death 31 days after assuming office.

1840 United States presidential election

The 14th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 30 to Wednesday, December 2, 1840.

Caricature on the aftermath of the panic of 1837
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of yellow are for Harrison (Whig) and shades of blue are for Van Buren (Democrat).
Map of presidential election results by county
Map of Whig presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of Liberty presidential election results by county
Map of "Other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Whig presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Liberty presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "Other" presidential election results by county
Harrison "Tippecanoe Club" ribbon
Ribbon for Harrison political rally
Ribbon for Danvers, Mass. delegation to Harrison Rally, Bunker Hill, 1840; engraved by George Girdler Smith
Delegate badge, Democratic convention
Cover of Boston Harrison Club's Harrison Melodies, 1840<ref>Boston Harrison Club. Harrison melodies: Original and selected. Boston: Weeks, Jordan and company, 1840. Google books</ref>

Economic recovery from the Panic of 1837 was incomplete, and Whig nominee William Henry Harrison defeated incumbent President Martin Van Buren of the Democratic Party.

Democratic-Republican Party

American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, agrarianism, political equality, and expansionism.

Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams in the 1800 presidential election, thereby becoming the first Democratic-Republican president.
The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 totaled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
Albert Gallatin served as Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.
James Monroe, the third Democratic-Republican president
Four Democratic-Republicans sought the presidency in 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay.
John Quincy Adams won the 1824 presidential election as a Democratic-Republican after leaving the Federalist Party earlier in his career.
Presidential election results from 1796 to 1824. Darker shades of green indicate that the state generally supported the Democratic-Republicans, and darker shades of brown indicate that the state generally supported the Federalists.
John Randolph of Roanoke was a prominent member of a group of Southern plantation owners known as the Old Republicans.
Andrew Jackson led a faction of Democratic-Republicans that ultimately coalesced into the Democratic Party.

The majority faction of the Democratic-Republicans eventually coalesced into the modern Democratic Party, while the minority faction ultimately formed the core of what became the Whig Party.

National Republican Party

Political party in the United States that evolved from a faction of the Democratic-Republican Party that supported John Quincy Adams in the 1824 presidential election.

Popular votes to political parties during presidential elections.

After the 1832 election, opponents of Jackson coalesced into the Whig Party.

Millard Fillmore

Fillmore c. 1850
Historical marker at the site of Fillmore's birth in Cayuga County, New York
Millard Fillmore helped build this house in East Aurora, New York, and lived there from 1826 to 1830.
Fillmore c. 1843, artist unknown
Engraving of Fillmore
Taylor (left) – Fillmore campaign banner by Nathaniel Currier
Results by state: those won by Taylor and Fillmore are in yellow.
Fillmore in 1849
From a Peter F. Rothermel engraving: Vice President Fillmore (upper right) presides over the Compromise debates as Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber. John C. Calhoun (seen in part standing just to Fillmore's right) and Daniel Webster (seated to the left of Clay) look on.
Official portrait of Fillmore by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1857
Fillmore's running mate in 1856, Andrew Jackson Donelson
In the 1856 election, Fillmore won only Maryland (in pink)
Caroline Fillmore
Fillmore during the Civil War
A pink obelisk marks Fillmore's grave at Buffalo's Forest Lawn Cemetery.
Presidential dollar of Millard Fillmore
Statue by Bryant Baker at Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo, New York, 1930
Fillmore's East Aurora house was moved off Main Street.
The house is designated a National Historic Landmark.
The DAR placed this plaque on the house in 1931.
A memorial to Fillmore on the gate surrounding his plot in Buffalo
Detail of the Fillmore obelisk in Buffalo

Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the 13th president of the United States, serving from 1850 to 1853, the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House.

John J. Crittenden

American statesman and politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky.

Crittenden as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Crittenden's Supreme Court nomination
Daguerreotype of John J. Crittenden, c. 1846. By Mathew Brady.
Lazarus W. Powell was Crittenden's opponent in the 1848 gubernatorial election.
President Millard Fillmore appointed Crittenden to his second term as U.S. attorney general.
Elizabeth Moss, Crittenden's third wife
John J. Crittenden in his elder years

With the advent of the Second Party System, he allied with the National Republican (later Whig) Party and was a fervent supporter of Henry Clay and opponent of Democrats Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren.

1844 United States presidential election

The 15th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 1 to Wednesday, December 4, 1844.

Grand National Democratic banner
Anti-annexation poster, New York City, April 1844. Albert Gallatin (signature on poster), Thomas Jefferson's Treasury Secretary presided over the event.
Martin Van Buren summons spirits to divine the Democratic or Loco Foco prospects for election in 1844.
Political cartoon predicting Polk's defeat by Clay
Grand National Whig banner
Incumbent President John Tyler, the Democratic-Republican Party presidential nominee
Broadside announcing torchlight victory parade in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Polk
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Clay
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Birney
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for other candidates

Democrat James K. Polk defeated Whig Henry Clay in a close contest turning on the controversial issues of slavery and the annexation of the Republic of Texas.