A report on Whig Party (United States)

John Quincy Adams, the 6th president, became a Whig congressman later in his career.
Henry Clay, a founder of the Whig Party in the 1830s and its 1844 presidential nominee
Daniel Webster, a leading Whig from New England
William Henry Harrison, a two-time presidential candidate who became the first Whig president in 1841 but died just one month into office
William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren in the 1840 presidential election, thereby becoming the first Whig president
President John Tyler clashed with congressional Whigs and was expelled from the party.
Zachary Taylor served in the Mexican-American War and later won the 1848 presidential election as the Whig nominee.
The United States settled the Texas-Mexico border and acquired portions of seven current states in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Portions of present-day Arizona and New Mexico were later acquired in the 1853 Gadsden Purchase.
A political cartoon satirizing the candidacy of either Zachary Taylor or Winfield Scott in the 1848 presidential election
Millard Fillmore, the last Whig president
Gen. Winfield Scott, the unsuccessful Whig candidate in the 1852 presidential election
Whig journalist Horace Greeley
John J. Crittenden, an influential Whig leader who later established the short-lived Constitutional Union Party to contest the election of 1860
U.S. presidential election results from 1828 to 1852. Darker shades of blue indicate states that generally voted for the Democratic Party, while darker shades of yellow/brown indicate states that generally voted for the Whig or National Republican Party.
Charles Sumner, an anti-slavery "Conscience Whig" who later joined the Republican Party
Edward Everett, a pro-South "Cotton Whig"
Abraham Lincoln, a former Whig congressman, won the 1860 presidential election on the Republican ticket.
John Marshall Harlan, who began his career as a Whig officeholder, served on the Supreme Court from 1877 to 1911.

Political party that espoused traditionalist conservatism in the United States during the middle of the 19th century.

- Whig Party (United States)
John Quincy Adams, the 6th president, became a Whig congressman later in his career.

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Clay photographed in 1848

Henry Clay

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American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.

American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.

Clay photographed in 1848
Henry Clay and Lucretia
View of Henry Clay's law office (1803–1810), Lexington, Kentucky
Portrait by Matthew Harris Jouett, 1818
Clay helped Adams win the 1825 contingent House election after Clay failed to finish among the three electoral vote-winners. States in orange voted for Crawford, states in green for Adams, and states in blue for Jackson.
Portrait of Henry Clay
Clay supported construction of the National Road, which extended west from Cumberland, Maryland.
Henry Clay, circa 1832
Andrew Jackson defeated Clay in the 1832 election
Clay (brown) won the backing of several state delegations on the first ballot of the 1839 Whig National Convention, but William Henry Harrison ultimately won the party's presidential nomination.
James K. Polk defeated Clay in the 1844 election.
Clay (brown) won the backing of numerous delegates on the first ballot of the 1848 Whig National Convention, but Zachary Taylor ultimately won the party's presidential nomination.
Henry Clay Jr., who died serving in the Mexican–American War
Henry Clay monument and mausoleum, Lexington Cemetery
Clay's estate, Ashland, in Lexington, Kentucky

He helped found both the National Republican Party and the Whig Party.

Daniel Webster

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American lawyer and statesman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the U.S. Congress and served as the U.S. Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, and Millard Fillmore.

American lawyer and statesman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the U.S. Congress and served as the U.S. Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, and Millard Fillmore.

Coat of Arms of Daniel Webster
New Hampshire historical marker (number 91) at his birthplace in present-day Franklin, New Hampshire
Daniel Webster's home in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The home has since been restored and is now part of the Strawbery Banke museum complex.
Daniel Webster represented the Second Bank of the United States both in the Congress and before the US Supreme Court as well serving as Director of its Boston branch on which he made out this $3,001.01 draft on July 24, 1824.
1834 portrait by Francis Alexander
Portion of painting, Webster's Reply to Hayne by George P.A. Healy
1836 electoral vote results
Through the Webster–Ashburton Treaty, Webster helped bring an end to a boundary dispute in Maine
Portrait of Daniel Webster commissioned by the Senate in 1955
Daniel Webster
Webster (red) won the support of several delegates at the 1852 Whig National Convention
Grace Fletcher
Colonel Fletcher Webster
Daniel Webster monument, Central Park, New York City, from the base: "Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and Inseparable"
Webster Hall, at Dartmouth College, houses the Rauner Special Collections Library, which holds some of Webster's personal belongings and writings, including his beaver fur top hat and silk socks.
1890 postage stamp honoring Webster

During his life, he was a member of the Federalist Party, the National Republican Party, and the Whig Party.

Van Buren by Mathew Brady, c. 1855–1858

Martin Van Buren

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American lawyer and statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841.

American lawyer and statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841.

Van Buren by Mathew Brady, c. 1855–1858
Van Buren's birthplace by John Warner Barber
Baptism record indicating the Dutch spelling of Van Buren's first name, "Maarten"
Hannah Van Buren
Painting of Van Buren by Daniel Dickinson, c. 1820s
Mrs Floride Calhoun, a leader of the "petticoats"
A painting of Van Buren by Francis Alexander, c. undefined 1830
1836 electoral vote results
Painting of Van Buren by Henry Inman, c. 1837–38
The modern balaam and his ass, an 1837 caricature placing the blame for the Panic of 1837 and the perilous state of the banking system on outgoing President Andrew Jackson, shown riding a donkey, while President Martin Van Buren comments approvingly
A United States Marine Corps boat expedition searching the Everglades during the Second Seminole War
"Destruction of the Caroline", illustration by John Charles Dent (1881)
1840 electoral vote results
Daguerreotype of Van Buren by Mathew Brady, c. 1849–50
Daguerreotype of Martin Van Buren, circa 1855
1858 portrait by GPA Healy, on display at the White House
Gubernatorial portrait of Martin Van Buren by Daniel Huntington in The Civil War

In 1840, Van Buren lost his re-election bid to William Henry Harrison, the nominee of the anti-Jacksonian Whig Party.

Fillmore c. 1850

Millard Fillmore

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Fillmore c. 1850
Fillmore c. undefined 1850s
Historical marker at the site of Fillmore's birth in Cayuga County, New York
Millard Fillmore helped build this house in East Aurora, New York, and lived there from 1826 to 1830.
Fillmore c. 1843, artist unknown
Engraving of Fillmore
Taylor (left) – Fillmore campaign banner by Nathaniel Currier
Results by state: those won by Taylor and Fillmore are in yellow.
Fillmore in 1849
From a Peter F. Rothermel engraving: Vice President Fillmore (upper right) presides over the Compromise debates as Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber. John C. Calhoun (seen in part standing just to Fillmore's right) and Daniel Webster (seated to the left of Clay) look on.
Official portrait of Fillmore by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1857
Fillmore's running mate in 1856, Andrew Jackson Donelson
In the 1856 election, Fillmore won only Maryland (in pink)
Caroline Fillmore
Fillmore during the Civil War
A pink obelisk marks Fillmore's grave at Buffalo's Forest Lawn Cemetery.
Presidential dollar of Millard Fillmore
Statue by Bryant Baker at Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo, New York, 1930
Fillmore's East Aurora house was moved off Main Street.
The house is designated a National Historic Landmark.
The DAR placed this plaque on the house in 1931.
A memorial to Fillmore on the gate surrounding his plot in Buffalo
Detail of the Fillmore obelisk in Buffalo

Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the 13th president of the United States, serving from 1850 to 1853, the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House.

Tyler, c. 1861

John Tyler

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The tenth president of the United States, serving from 1841 to 1845, after briefly holding office as the tenth vice president in 1841.

The tenth president of the United States, serving from 1841 to 1845, after briefly holding office as the tenth vice president in 1841.

Tyler, c. 1861
Tyler's birthplace, Greenway Plantation in Charles City County, Virginia
Woodburn Plantation, Tyler's residence 1813–1821
An engraving of Tyler in his mid-thirties (c. 1826) as Governor of Virginia
"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
1840 electoral vote map
1888 illustration of President Tyler receiving the news of President Harrison's death from Chief Clerk of the State Department Fletcher Webster
Official portrait of President Tyler by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1864
Whig cartoon depicting the effects of unemployment on a family that has Jackson's and Van Buren's portraits on the wall
The boundaries of the United States and neighboring nations as they appeared in 1843. The Webster–Ashburton Treaty had formalized the border of Maine in the northeast, while the Republic of Texas in the southwest had a disputed border with Mexico.
A lithograph of the Princeton disaster (1844)
An anti-Tyler satire lampoons his efforts to secure a second term. Tyler pushes the door shut on opponents Clay, Polk, Calhoun, and Jackson, as Uncle Sam demands that he let Clay in.
An oil portrait of Tyler's first wife, Letitia Christian Tyler, by an unknown artist
An oil portrait of Tyler's second wife, Julia Gardiner Tyler, by Francesco Anelli
An obelisk marks Tyler's grave at Hollywood Cemetery.
Tyler on a U.S. postage stamp, Issue of 1938

He was elected vice president on the 1840 Whig ticket with President William Henry Harrison, succeeding to the presidency after Harrison's death 31 days after assuming office.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. undefined 1849

James K. Polk

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The 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849.

The 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. undefined 1849
Reconstruction of the log cabin in Pineville, North Carolina where Polk was born
c. 1846–49 daguerreotype of James K. Polk and Sarah Childress Polk
The house where Polk spent his young adult life before his presidency, in Columbia, Tennessee, is his only private residence still standing. It is now known as the James K. Polk Home.
1844 campaign banner for the Polk/Dallas ticket, produced by Nathaniel Currier
Results of the 1844 presidential election
The White House 1846
203x203px
President Polk, BEP engraved portrait
The inauguration of James K. Polk, as shown in the Illustrated London News, v. 6, April 19, 1845
Polk and his cabinet in the White House dining room, 1846. Front row, left to right: John Y. Mason, William L. Marcy, James K. Polk, Robert J. Walker. Back row, left to right: Cave Johnson, George Bancroft. Secretary of State James Buchanan is absent. This was the first photograph taken in the White House, and the first of a presidential Cabinet.
Map of Oregon Country, which the Oregon Treaty split between the Americans and British at the 49th parallel
Map of Mexico in 1845, with the Republic of Texas, the Republic of Yucatan and the disputed territory between Mexico and Texas in red. Mexico claimed to own all of Texas.
Polk's presidential proclamation of war against Mexico
Overview map of the war
War News from Mexico (1848)
Antonio López de Santa Anna, 1847
The Mexican Cession (in red) was acquired through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Gadsden Purchase (in orange) was acquired through purchase after Polk left office.
United States states and territories when Polk entered office
United States states and territories when Polk left office
Polk's official White House portrait, by George Peter Alexander Healy, 1858
The California Gold Rush began under Polk.
Associate Justice Levi Woodbury (c. 1850)
Robert C. Grier, one of President Polk's two appointees to the Supreme Court
Results of the 1848 presidential election
James K. Polk's tomb lies on the grounds of the Tennessee State Capitol
Polk Place, briefly James Polk's home and long that of his widow
Elias Polk depicted later in life was a valet to James Polk, being the only known image of a Polk household slave.
A statue of Polk at the North Carolina State Capitol

In the general election, Polk defeated Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party.

William H. Seward

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American politician who served as United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as governor of New York and as a United States Senator.

American politician who served as United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as governor of New York and as a United States Senator.

Seward's wife Frances Adeline Seward
Gubernatorial portrait of William H. Seward
Seward around 1844. Painting by Henry Inman.
Seward in 1851
Seward in 1859
In this March 1860 cartoon, Seward serves "mild beer" in his February 29, 1860, address to position himself as a moderate after the "irrepressible conflict" speech.
Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Seward photographed by the studio of Mathew Brady
Seward's little bell, as depicted in a hostile postwar cartoon
Running The "Machine"
An 1864 cartoon mocking Lincoln's cabinet depicts Seward, William Fessenden, Lincoln, Edwin Stanton, Gideon Welles and other members
Lewis Powell attacking Frederick Seward after attempting to shoot him
Medal presented to George F. Robinson for saving Seward's life
Thomas Nast cartoon from before the 1866 midterm elections. Seward is depicted as Johnson's grand vizier, motioning for the execution of Thaddeus Stevens, and is seen again in the inset, scars from the assassination attempt visible.
Johnson, as Mercutio, wishes a plague on both their Houses (of Congress) as Seward (as Romeo, right) leans over him. Alfred Waud cartoon from 1868.
Signing the Alaska Purchase. Seward is seated at center.
Thomas Nast cartoon on Alaska, 1867. Seward hopes that the purchase will help cool Johnson's fevered political situation.
Statue of Seward by Randolph Rogers in Madison Square Park, New York City

Four years later, he became the gubernatorial nominee of the Whig Party.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady

John Quincy Adams

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American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady
Adams's birthplace in Quincy, Massachusetts
1815 US passport issued by John Quincy Adams at London.
Adams portrait – Gilbert Stuart, 1818
Painting of John Quincy Adams by Thomas Sully, 1824
In the Adams–Onís Treaty, the United States acquired Florida and set the western border of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.
1824 presidential election results
General Andrew Jackson, Adams's opponent in the 1824 and 1828 United States presidential elections
Painting of Quincy Adams by Charles Osgood, 1828
Quincy Adams appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State
1828 presidential election results
Daguerreotype of Quincy Adams by Philip Haas, 1843
Portrait of Quincy Adams by William Hudson, 1844
John Quincy Adams, c. 1840s, Unknown author
BEP engraved portrait of Adams as president
Adams's portrait at the U.S. National Portrait Gallery by George Bingham c. 1850 copy of an 1844 original
Adams's cenotaph at the Congressional Cemetery
John Quincy Adams's original tomb at Hancock Cemetery, across the street from United First Parish Church
Presidential Dollar of John Quincy Adams
Official portrait of Adams by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1858
Peacefield - John Quincy Adam's Home
Tombs of Presidents John Adams (far left) and John Quincy Adams (right) and their wives Abigail and Louisa, in a family crypt beneath the United First Parish Church.

Initially a Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863

Abraham Lincoln

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American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

He was self-educated and became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator, and U.S. Congressman from Illinois.

Photo by Mathew Brady

Stephen A. Douglas

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American politician and lawyer from Illinois.

American politician and lawyer from Illinois.

Photo by Mathew Brady
Stephen A. Douglas
Adele Cutts, c. 1860
The United States in 1849, with Texas's land claims on New Mexico shown
The United States after the Compromise of 1850
Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler – An 1856 cartoon depicts a giant "Free Soiler" being held down by James Buchanan and Lewis Cass standing on the Democratic platform marked "Kansas", "Cuba" and "Central America". Franklin Pierce also holds down the giant's beard as Douglas shoves a black man down his throat. A victim of lynching can also be seen in the background.
Stephen A. Douglas, photograph by Mathew Brady
Abraham Lincoln was Douglas's opponent in both the 1858 Senate election in Illinois and the 1860 presidential election.
Statue of Douglas at the site of the 1858 debate in Freeport, Illinois
Douglas (dark blue) had the support of most Northern delegates on the presidential ballot of the 1860 Democratic National Convention.
Douglas was defeated by Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 presidential election, as he won electoral votes from just two states.
Plaque at the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois, commemorating Douglas's "Protect The Flag" speech of April 25, 1861
Douglas's tomb
Douglas's widow, Adele, in mourning dress. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
Douglas depicted on the Series 1875 $10,000 Certificate of Deposit

In 1836, he won election to the Illinois House of Representatives, defeating Whig Party candidate John J. Hardin.