Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Insurrectionsupervisor of revenueWhisky InsurrectionWhisky RebellionWhiskey ActThe Whiskey RebellionWhiskey Rebelsa tax rebellionBower HillJuly 16, 1794
The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane.wikipedia
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Presidency of George Washington

first inauguration of George WashingtonWashington administrationinaugurated
The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane.
Washington personally led federal soldiers in suppressing the Whiskey Rebellion, which arose in opposition to the administration's taxation policies.

John Neville (general)

John NevilleGeneral John NevilleGen. John Neville
The alarm was raised, and more than 500 armed men attacked the fortified home of tax inspector General John Neville.
John Neville (July 26, 1731 – July 29, 1803) was an American military officer, land speculator, and state official who served in the French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War and, as a tax collector, was a central figure in the Whiskey Rebellion.

Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Allegheny CountyAlleghenyAllegheny County Board of Commissioners
Opposition to the tax was particularly prevalent in four southwestern counties: Allegheny, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland.
This started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville.

Fayette County, Pennsylvania

Fayette CountyFayetteFayette Counties
Opposition to the tax was particularly prevalent in four southwestern counties: Allegheny, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland.
Fayette County settlers provided the new United States government with an early test of authority in the 1793 Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against tax collectors to protest a new liquor tax.

Albert Gallatin

GallatinistAbraham Alfonse Albert GallatinGallatin
Future Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin was one moderate who did attend, to his later regret.
Returning to Pennsylvania, Gallatin helped calm many angry farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion.


mountain peopleAppalachianAppalachian region
Older accounts of the Whiskey Rebellion portrayed it as being confined to western Pennsylvania, yet there was opposition to the whiskey tax in the western counties of every other state in Appalachia (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia).
After the war, residents throughout the Appalachian backcountry—especially the Monongahela region in western Pennsylvania, and antebellum northwestern Virginia (now the north-central part of West Virginia) — refused to pay a tax placed on whiskey by the new American government, leading to what became known as the Whiskey Rebellion.

David Bradford (lawyer)

David BradfordGeneral David Bradford
Radical leaders emerged, such as David Bradford, urging violent resistance.
He was infamous for his association with the Whiskey Rebellion, and his fictionalized escape to the Spanish-owned territory of West Florida (modern-day Louisiana) with soldiers at his tail.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton sought to use this debt to create a financial system that would promote American prosperity and national unity.
Strong opposition to the whiskey tax by cottage producers in remote, rural regions erupted into the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794; in Western Pennsylvania and western Virginia, whiskey was the basic export product and was fundamental to the local economy.

George Clymer

In September 1792, he sent Pennsylvania tax official George Clymer to western Pennsylvania to investigate.
John Meredith, Margaret, George, and Ann also survived to adulthood, though John Meredith was killed in the Whiskey Rebellion in 1787 at the age of 18.

Bedford County, Pennsylvania

Bedford CountyBedfordBedford Co.
The flag had six stripes, one for each county represented at the gathering: the Pennsylvania counties of Allegheny, Bedford, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland, and Virginia's Ohio County.
In 1794 President George Washington came to the county in response to the Whiskey Rebellion.

Tarring and feathering

tarred and featheredtar and feathertar and feathers
On September 11, 1791, a recently appointed tax collector named Robert Johnson was tarred and feathered by a disguised gang in Washington County.
During the Whiskey Rebellion, local farmers inflicted the punishment on federal tax agents.

Hagerstown, Maryland

HagerstownHagerstown, MDHagerstown (Washington, D.C.)
In Maryland, Governor Thomas Sim Lee sent 800 men to quash an anti-draft riot in Hagerstown; about 150 people were arrested.
In 1794, government forces arrested 150 citizens during a draft riot which was staged by protesters in response to the Whiskey Rebellion.

Militia Acts of 1792

Militia Act of 1792Militia ActsMilitia Act
Before troops could be raised, the Militia Act of 1792 required a justice of the United States Supreme Court to certify that law enforcement was beyond the control of local authorities.
This authority was used to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.

William Findley

Changes included a 1-cent reduction in the tax that was advocated by William Findley, a congressman from western Pennsylvania, but the new excise law was still unsatisfactory to many westerners.
As a voice of reason, in 1794 he helped to calm the passions of the Whiskey Insurrection.

Daniel Morgan

Gen. Daniel Morgan
Daniel Morgan, the victor of the Battle of Cowpens during the American Revolution, was called up to lead a force to suppress the protest.
One of the most gifted battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), he later commanded troops during the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion (1791–1794).

American whiskey

AmericanwhiskeyAmerican blended whiskey
The tax applied to all distilled spirits, but American whiskey was by far the country's most popular distilled beverage in the 18th century, so the excise became widely known as a "whiskey tax".

James Ross (Pennsylvania politician)

James RossRoss, James
In early August 1794, Washington dispatched three commissioners to the west, all of them Pennsylvanians: Attorney General William Bradford, Justice Jasper Yeates of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, and Senator James Ross.
President George Washington appointed him to negotiate with the rebels of the Whiskey Rebellion, successfully defusing the situation without violence.

William Rawle

In May of that year, federal district attorney William Rawle issued subpoenas for more than 60 distillers in Pennsylvania who had not paid the excise tax.
In 1791 President Washington appointed him United States district attorney for Pennsylvania, in which capacity he prosecuted the leaders of the Whiskey Insurrection.

Bedford, Pennsylvania

BedfordBedford, PABedford Springs, Pennsylvania
Washington met with the western representatives in Bedford, Pennsylvania on October 9 before going to Fort Cumberland in Maryland to review the southern wing of the army.
The Espy House in Bedford is notable for having been the headquarters of George Washington and his force of 13,000 while putting down the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, which had started around the Jean Bonnet Tavern just west of Bedford.

List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the president of the United States

List of people pardoned or granted clemency by a United States presidentpardonclemency
They were later [[List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States#George Washington|pardoned by Washington]].
* Philip Vigol (or Wigle) and John Mitchel, convicted of treason for their roles in the Whiskey Rebellion

Hugh Henry Brackenridge

Hugh H. BrackenridgeH. H. BrackenridgeHenry Brackenridge
The Pittsburgh convention was dominated by moderates such as Hugh Henry Brackenridge, who hoped to prevent the outbreak of violence.
Brackenridge also nearly lost his life when he attempted to mediate the Whiskey Rebellion.

Carlisle, Pennsylvania

CarlisleCarlisle, PABorough of Carlisle
A liberty pole was raised in Carlisle, Pennsylvania on September 11, 1794.
A decade later, during the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, the troops of Pennsylvania and New Jersey assembled in Carlisle under the leadership of President George Washington.

Monongahela, Pennsylvania

MonongahelaMonongahela CityMonongahela City, Pennsylvania
A convention was held on August 14 of 226 whiskey rebels from the six counties, held at Parkison's Ferry (now known as Whiskey Point) in present-day Monongahela.
Whiskey Point, a bluff overlooking the Monongahela River located within the city, was an important meeting place during the Whiskey Rebellion.

Meriwether Lewis

LewisMerriwether LewisMeriweather Lewis
After the uprising had been suppressed, Morgan commanded the remnant of the army that remained until 1795 in Pennsylvania, some 1,200 militiamen, one of whom was Meriwether Lewis.
That year he joined the Virginia militia, and in 1794 he was sent as part of a detachment involved in putting down the Whiskey Rebellion.

Oliver Miller Homestead

James Miller HouseMiller farm
That evening, warning shots were fired at the men at the Miller farm, about 10 mi south of Pittsburgh.
In 1794, the first gunshots of the Whiskey Rebellion were fired on the property.