White supremacy

white supremacistwhite supremacistswhite supremacismwhite separatistwhite powerWhite separatismwhite-supremacistwhitewhite superioritysupremacist
White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them.wikipedia
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Apartheid

South Africa under apartheidapartheid in South Africaapartheid South Africa
The term is also used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, political, historical, or institutional domination by white people (as evidenced by historical and contemporary sociopolitical structures such as the Atlantic slave trade, Jim Crow laws in the United States, the set of "White Australia" policies from the 1890s until the mid-1970s, and apartheid in South Africa). Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party after the general election of 1948.
Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (or white supremacy), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population.

Racism

racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them.
African American writers have sometimes been portrayed in African-American studies as retreating from racial issues when they write about "whiteness", while others identify this as an African American literary tradition called "the literature of white estrangement", part of a multi-pronged effort to challenge and dismantle white supremacy in the US.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
In the antebellum South, this included the holding of African Americans in chattel slavery, in which four million of them were denied freedom.
Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens.

Critical race theory

critical racecritical race studiesCritical race theorists
In academic usage, particularly in usage which draws on critical race theory or intersectionality, the term "white supremacy" can also refer to a political or socioeconomic system, in which white people enjoy a structural advantage (privilege) over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level.
It began as a theoretical movement within American law schools in the mid- to late 1980s as a reworking of critical legal studies on race issues and is loosely unified by two common themes: First, CRT proposes that white supremacy and racial power are maintained over time, and in particular, that the law may play a role in this process.

Civil rights movement

American Civil Rights Movementcivil rightscivil rights era
The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the mid-20th century, resulting in the civil rights movement.
Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.

Jim Crow laws

Jim CrowJim Crow eraJim Crow law
The term is also used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, political, historical, or institutional domination by white people (as evidenced by historical and contemporary sociopolitical structures such as the Atlantic slave trade, Jim Crow laws in the United States, the set of "White Australia" policies from the 1890s until the mid-1970s, and apartheid in South Africa).
In North Carolina and other Southern states, blacks suffered from being made invisible in the political system: "[W]ithin a decade of disfranchisement, the white supremacy campaign had erased the image of the black middle class from the minds of white North Carolinians."

White nationalism

white nationalistwhite nationalistswhite power
According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland.
Analysts describe white nationalism as overlapping with white supremacism and white separatism.

White power skinhead

racist skinheadwhite power skinheadsneo-Nazi skinheads
Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups (such as the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazi organizations, and racist skinheads) and a religious fundamentalist movement (such as Christian Identity) being the other two.
White power skinheads are members of a neo-nazi, white supremacist and antisemitic offshoot of the skinhead subculture.

Christian Identity

Christian Identity movementIdentity ChristianityIdentity Christians
Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups (such as the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazi organizations, and racist skinheads) and a religious fundamentalist movement (such as Christian Identity) being the other two.
Christian Identity (also known as Identity Christianity) is a racist, anti-Semitic, and white supremacist interpretation of Christianity which holds that only Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Nordic, Aryan people and those of kindred blood are the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and hence the descendants of the ancient Israelites.

Radical right (United States)

radical rightAmerican far rightfar right
After the mid-1960s, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right.
According to Clive Webb, "Radical right is commonly, but not completely, used to describe anticommunist organizations such as the Christian Crusade and the John Birch Society... [T]he term far right... is the label most broadly used by scholars... to describe militant white supremacists."

Racism in the United States

racismracistracial discrimination
According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland.
Since the mid-2010s, the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation have considered white supremacist violence to be the leading threat of domestic terrorism in the United States.

Reconstruction era

ReconstructionpostbellumCongressional Reconstruction
White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, and it also persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era. The 1915 silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included segregation and the preservation of the traditional cultural standards of the South; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and Constitutional equality for African Americans.

Domestic terrorism

domestic terroristhomegrown terrorismhomegrown terrorists
On July 23, 2019, Christopher A. Wray, the head of the FBI, said at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that the agency had made around 100 domestic terrorism arrests since October 1, 2018, and that the majority of them were connected in some way with white supremacy.
From the late 20th to the early 21st centuries, lone wolf terrorism in the United States has primarily been associated with white supremacy, Islamic fundamentalism, anti-social, and anti-government extremists such as Charles Whitman, Timothy McVeigh, Dylann Roof, Robert Bowers, Wade Michael Page, Ted Kaczynski, Eric Rudolph, Eric Harris, Dylan Klebold, James Holmes, Omar Mateen,and Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.

Alt-right

alt-right movementalt-leftAlternative Right
With the emergence of Twitter in 2006, and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in 1996, an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Groups which have been identified as alt-right also espouse white supremacism, white separatism, severe immigration restrictions, and antisemitism.

Stormfront (website)

StormfrontIndependent National SocialismNeo-Nazi website of the same name
With the emergence of Twitter in 2006, and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in 1996, an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Stormfront is a white nationalist, white supremacist, antisemitic, Holocaust denial, neo-Nazi Internet forum, and the Web's first major racial hate site.

Scientific racism

biological racismscientific racistrace science
White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, and it often relies on pseudoscientific arguments.
Vacher de Lapouge's classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe (1899), a book which had a large influence on American white supremacism.

Kathleen Belew

According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland.
Kathleen Belew is a research fellow at Stanford University, "an assistant professor of history at the University of Chicago and an international authority on the white-power movement."

White genocide conspiracy theory

white genocidegenocide against white peoplea supposed white genocide
A sign that greets people who enter the town states "Diversity is a code for white genocide."
The white genocide, white extinction, or white replacement conspiracy theory is a white supremacist belief that there is a deliberate plot, often blamed on Jews, to promote miscegenation, mass non-white immigration, racial integration, low fertility rates, abortion, governmental land-confiscation from whites, organised violence, and eliminationism in supposedly white-founded countries in order to cause the extinction of whites through forced assimilation and violent genocide.

Emancipation Proclamation

emancipationemancipatedabolition
The 1915 silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
Socially, slavery was also supported in law and in practice by a pervasive culture of white supremacy.

National Party (South Africa)

National PartyNPNationalist Party
Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party after the general election of 1948.
Although White-minority rule and racial segregation based on White supremacy were already in existence in South Africa with non-Whites not having voting rights and efforts made to encourage segregation, apartheid intensified the segregation with stern penalties for non-Whites entering into areas designated for Whites-only without having a pass to permit them to do so (known as the pass laws), interracial marriage and sexual relationships were illegal and punishable offences, and blacks faced significant restrictions on property rights.

Hate group

hate groupsgroupshate
There certainly were hate groups before the Internet and social media.
This broad term includes a range of people who reject mainstream conservatism in favor of forms of conservatism that may embrace implicit or explicit racism or white supremacy.

Fundamentalism

fundamentalistreligious fundamentalismfundamentalists
Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups (such as the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazi organizations, and racist skinheads) and a religious fundamentalist movement (such as Christian Identity) being the other two.
In the United States, some white supremacist groups and terrorists—including several with neo-fascist or neo-Nazi leanings—have built their ideologies around pagan religious imagery, including Odinism or Wotanism.

4chan

4chan.org/b//r9k/
Daniels discussed the emergence of other social media outlets such as 4chan and Reddit, which meant that the "spread of white nationalist symbols and ideas could be accelerated and amplified".
The Southern Poverty Law Center regards /pol/'s rhetorical style as widely emulated by white supremacist websites such as The Daily Stormer; the Stormers editor, Andrew Anglin, concurred.

Arthur de Gobineau

GobineauJoseph Arthur de GobineauArthur Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau, a French racial theorist and aristocrat, blamed the fall of the ancien régime in France on racial degeneracy caused by racial intermixing, which he argued had destroyed the "purity" of the Nordic or Germanic race.
Gobineau's writings were quickly praised by white supremacist, pro-slavery Americans like Josiah C. Nott and Henry Hotze, who translated his book into English.

Ku Klux Klan

KKKKlansmanKlansmen
Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups (such as the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazi organizations, and racist skinheads) and a religious fundamentalist movement (such as Christian Identity) being the other two.
The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group, whose primary target are African Americans.