Wilhelm Gesenius

GeseniusGesenius' Hebrew Grammar
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.wikipedia
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Tetragrammaton

YHWHGodYahweh
He is credited, among other things, with the reconstructed pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, "Yahweh."
The Hebrew scholar Wilhelm Gesenius [1786–1842] suggested that the Hebrew punctuation יַהְוֶה, which is transliterated into English as Yahweh, might more accurately represent the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton than the Biblical Hebrew punctuation "יְהֹוָה", from which the English name Jehovah has been derived.

Carl Peter Wilhelm Gramberg

C. P. W. Gramberg
Among his pupils the most eminent were Peter von Bohlen, C. P. W. Gramberg, A. G. Hoffmann, Hermann Hupfeld, Emil Rödiger, J. F. Tuch, Johann Karl Wilhelm Vatke and Theodor Benfey.
Gramberg attended university at Halle, where he studied Hebrew Bible and Theology under Wilhelm Gesenius and Julius Wegscheider.

Johann Karl Thilo

The only interruptions occurred in 1813–1814, occasioned by the German War of Liberation (War of the Sixth Coalition), during which the university was closed, and those occasioned by two prolonged literary tours, first in 1820 to Paris, London and Oxford with his colleague Johann Karl Thilo (1794–1853) for the examination of rare oriental manuscripts, and in 1835 to England and the Netherlands in connection with his Phoenician studies.
In 1820 he travelled to Paris, London and Oxford with his colleague Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius for the examination of rare Eastern manuscripts.

University of Helmstedt

HelmstedtuniversityAcademia Julia
In 1803 he became a student of philosophy and theology at the University of Helmstedt, where Heinrich Henke was his most influential teacher; but the latter part of his university course was taken at Göttingen, where Johann Gottfried Eichhorn and Thomas Christian Tychsen were then at the height of their popularity.
Wilhelm Gesenius, philologist

Hermann Hupfeld

Among his pupils the most eminent were Peter von Bohlen, C. P. W. Gramberg, A. G. Hoffmann, Hermann Hupfeld, Emil Rödiger, J. F. Tuch, Johann Karl Wilhelm Vatke and Theodor Benfey.
Sixteen years later he returned to Halle as a successor of Wilhelm Gesenius.

Thomas Christian Tychsen

Tychsen
In 1803 he became a student of philosophy and theology at the University of Helmstedt, where Heinrich Henke was his most influential teacher; but the latter part of his university course was taken at Göttingen, where Johann Gottfried Eichhorn and Thomas Christian Tychsen were then at the height of their popularity.
Among his better known students were Orientalists Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842) and Heinrich Ewald (1803-1875).

Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann

A. G. HoffmannA.G. Hoffmann
Among his pupils the most eminent were Peter von Bohlen, C. P. W. Gramberg, A. G. Hoffmann, Hermann Hupfeld, Emil Rödiger, J. F. Tuch, Johann Karl Wilhelm Vatke and Theodor Benfey.
At Halle he was a pupil of Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842).

Brown–Driver–Briggs

Brown, Driver and BriggsBrown, Driver, and Briggs
Brown–Driver–Briggs (2nd ed. 1907; corrected impression 1963) is based on Gesenius' work.
It was based on the Hebrew-German lexicon of Wilhelm Gesenius, translated by Edward Robinson.

Emil Rödiger

Rödiger
Among his pupils the most eminent were Peter von Bohlen, C. P. W. Gramberg, A. G. Hoffmann, Hermann Hupfeld, Emil Rödiger, J. F. Tuch, Johann Karl Wilhelm Vatke and Theodor Benfey. From his extensive body of work, the products most familiar to modern English-speaking readers are his Hebrew Grammar, best represented by an English translation of the 28th German edition, published by Oxford University in 1910, and his dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, known through a number of English translations, including an 1853 edition edited by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles and a 1907 edition revised by Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver and Charles A. Briggs As indicated by the title pages, the German editions of these works were carried forward by several revised editions, after Gesenius's death, by other scholars, most conspicuously Emil Rödiger, into the 20th century.
After the death of Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842), he finished his Thesaurus Linguae Hebraicae, and edited his Hebrew grammar from the 14th (1845) to the 21st edition (1874).

Edward Robinson (scholar)

Edward RobinsonRobinsonE. Robinson
Edward Robinson, an acquaintance of Gesenius, and his principal English translator and biographer, said of him, " So clear were his own conception, that he never uttered a sentence, no scarcely ever wrote one, which even the dullest intellect did not at once comprehend. In this respect, he may be said to stand out almost alone among modern German scholars. ... In all that fell within the proper sphere of his own researches, he never rested upon the authority of others, but investigated for himself, with all the minute accuracy and closeness of detail and unwearied industry for which German learning is celebrated. His one great object was philological truth. He had no preconceived theories, to the support of which he was at all hazards committed, and in connection with which only he sought for truth. These traits, combined with his extensive learning, inspired a confidence in his researches and opinions on topics connected with Hebrew philology, such as has been bestowed on few scholars." Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament (1815; 16th ed. 1915). After the tenth edition chaldäisches was changed into aramäisches. Various editions of this work have been translated into English by Gibbs (1824, 1827, 1832), Robinson (1836, 1854), and Tregelles (1859).
In 1836 Robinson published both a translation of Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon and a Greek New Testament Lexicon.

Josiah Willard Gibbs Sr.

GibbsJ. Willard Gibbs, Sr.Josiah Gibbs
Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament (1815; 16th ed. 1915). After the tenth edition chaldäisches was changed into aramäisches. Various editions of this work have been translated into English by Gibbs (1824, 1827, 1832), Robinson (1836, 1854), and Tregelles (1859).
His work increasingly focused on linguistics and was strongly influenced by the grammar of James Harris and by German scholars such as Wilhelm Gesenius and Karl Becker.

Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg

HengstenbergE. W. HengstenbergEW Hengstenberg
In 1830 there were violent verbal attacks to which he, along with his friend and colleague Julius Wegscheider, were subjected by E. W. Hengstenberg and his party in the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, on account of his rationalism and his lecture comments treating lightly the Biblical accounts of miracles.
It did not become well-known until in 1830 an anonymous article (by Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach) appeared, which openly charged Wilhelm Gesenius and Julius Wegscheider with infidelity and profanity, and on the ground of these accusations advocated the interposition of the civil power, thus giving rise to the prolonged Hallische Streit.

Samuel Prideaux Tregelles

TregellesS. P. TregellesS.P. Tregelles
Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament (1815; 16th ed. 1915). After the tenth edition chaldäisches was changed into aramäisches. Various editions of this work have been translated into English by Gibbs (1824, 1827, 1832), Robinson (1836, 1854), and Tregelles (1859). From his extensive body of work, the products most familiar to modern English-speaking readers are his Hebrew Grammar, best represented by an English translation of the 28th German edition, published by Oxford University in 1910, and his dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, known through a number of English translations, including an 1853 edition edited by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles and a 1907 edition revised by Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver and Charles A. Briggs As indicated by the title pages, the German editions of these works were carried forward by several revised editions, after Gesenius's death, by other scholars, most conspicuously Emil Rödiger, into the 20th century.
Tregelles also wrote Heads of Hebrew Grammar (1852), translated Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon (1846, 1857) from Latin, and was the author of a little work on the Jansenists (1851) and of various works in exposition of his special eschatological views including Remarks on the Prophetic Visions of Daniel (1852, new ed., 1864) and The Hope of Christ's Second Coming (1864).

Charles Augustus Briggs

Charles A. BriggsCharlesBriggs
From his extensive body of work, the products most familiar to modern English-speaking readers are his Hebrew Grammar, best represented by an English translation of the 28th German edition, published by Oxford University in 1910, and his dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, known through a number of English translations, including an 1853 edition edited by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles and a 1907 edition revised by Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver and Charles A. Briggs As indicated by the title pages, the German editions of these works were carried forward by several revised editions, after Gesenius's death, by other scholars, most conspicuously Emil Rödiger, into the 20th century.
With Francis Brown and S. R. Driver he prepared a revised Hebrew and English Lexicon (1891–1905, commonly known as Brown Driver Briggs or BDB) based on the lexicon of Wilhelm Gesenius, and with Driver edited The International Critical Commentary series.

Gotthelf Bergsträsser

BergsträsserBergsträsser, GotthelfG. Bergstrasser
Hebräische Grammatik (1813, 29th ed. 1929 by Gotthelf Bergsträsser [incomplete]). English translation by Arthur E. Cowley (2nd ed. 1910).
One of his most well known works is the 29th (and final) edition of Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1918–1929), which remained incomplete, containing only phonology and morphology of the verb.

Francis Brown (theologian)

Francis Brown
From his extensive body of work, the products most familiar to modern English-speaking readers are his Hebrew Grammar, best represented by an English translation of the 28th German edition, published by Oxford University in 1910, and his dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, known through a number of English translations, including an 1853 edition edited by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles and a 1907 edition revised by Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver and Charles A. Briggs As indicated by the title pages, the German editions of these works were carried forward by several revised editions, after Gesenius's death, by other scholars, most conspicuously Emil Rödiger, into the 20th century.
A. C. McGiffert and G. W. Knox), almost purely linguistic and lexical, and include Assyriology: its Use and Abuse in Old Testament Study (1885), and the important revision of Gesenius' Lexicon, undertaken with S. R. Driver and C. A. Briggs — Brown Driver Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (1891–1905).

Emil Friedrich Kautzsch

Emil KautzschKautzschKautzsch, E.F.
- written by Wilhelm Gesenius; 1910 edition, edited and enlarged by Emil Kautzsch; translated by Arthur Ernest Cowley; scanned and digitized public domain book
The 22nd through the 28th editions of Gesenius' Hebräische Grammatik, (last edition published in 1909).

Arthur Cowley (librarian)

Arthur E. CowleyCowleySir Arthur Cowley
Hebräische Grammatik (1813, 29th ed. 1929 by Gotthelf Bergsträsser [incomplete]). English translation by Arthur E. Cowley (2nd ed. 1910). - written by Wilhelm Gesenius; 1910 edition, edited and enlarged by Emil Kautzsch; translated by Arthur Ernest Cowley; scanned and digitized public domain book
He translated from German into English the last complete significant edition of Wilhelm Gesenius' Hebrew grammar, revised by Emil Kautzsch; this edition is still widely used in Hebrew language studies around the world in the 21st century.

Oriental studies

orientalistOrientalistsoriental languages
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.

Lutheranism

LutheranLutheransLutheran Church
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.

Biblical criticism

biblical scholarsbiblical scholarshipcritical scholars
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.

Yahweh

GodYahGod of Israel
He is credited, among other things, with the reconstructed pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, "Yahweh."

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In 1803 he became a student of philosophy and theology at the University of Helmstedt, where Heinrich Henke was his most influential teacher; but the latter part of his university course was taken at Göttingen, where Johann Gottfried Eichhorn and Thomas Christian Tychsen were then at the height of their popularity.

Theology

theologiantheologicaltheologians
In 1803 he became a student of philosophy and theology at the University of Helmstedt, where Heinrich Henke was his most influential teacher; but the latter part of his university course was taken at Göttingen, where Johann Gottfried Eichhorn and Thomas Christian Tychsen were then at the height of their popularity.