Taft in 1909
Yale College photograph of Taft
Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
A young Bryan
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1908 electoral vote results
1896 electoral vote results
1909 inauguration
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
1900 electoral vote results
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
1908 electoral vote results
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and easily defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency in that November's election.

- William Howard Taft

Bryan won his party's nomination in the 1908 presidential election, but he was defeated by Roosevelt's chosen successor, William Howard Taft.

- William Jennings Bryan
Taft in 1909

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Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

Theodore Roosevelt

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

He groomed his close friend William Howard Taft to succeed him in the 1908 presidential election.

In the 1896 presidential election, Roosevelt backed Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed for the Republican nomination, but William McKinley won the nomination and defeated William Jennings Bryan in the general election.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919

Woodrow Wilson

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, 1919
Wilson, c. undefined mid-1870s
Ellen Wilson in 1912
Wilson in 1902
Prospect House, Wilson's home on Princeton's campus
Governor Wilson, 1911
Results of the 1910 gubernatorial election in New Jersey. Wilson won the counties in blue.
1912 electoral vote map
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet (1918)
Wilson giving his first State of the Union address, the first such address since 1801
Map of Federal Reserve Districts–black circles, Federal Reserve Banks–black squares, District branches–red circles and Washington HQ–star/black circle
In a 1913 cartoon, Wilson primes the economic pump with tariff, currency and antitrust laws
Official presidential portrait of Woodrow Wilson (1913)
Uncle Sam entering Mexico in 1916 to punish Pancho Villa. Uncle Sam says "I've had about enough of this."
Wilson and "Jingo", the American War Dog. The editorial cartoon ridicules jingoes baying for war.
The Wilson family
Wilson accepts the Democratic Party nomination, 1916
1916 electoral vote map
Map of the great powers and their empires in 1914
Liberty Loan drive in front of City Hall, New Orleans. On City Hall is a banner reading "Food will win the war—don't waste it".
Women workers in ordnance shops, Pennsylvania, 1918
The "Big Four" at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, following the end of World War I. Wilson is standing next to Georges Clemenceau at right.
Several new European states were established at the Paris Peace Conference
Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.
June 3, 1919, Newspapers of the 1919 bombings
Republican nominee Warren G. Harding defeated Democratic nominee James Cox in the 1920 election
The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.
World War I draft card, the lower left corner to be removed by men of African background to help keep the military segregated
Political cartoon published in New York Evening Mail about the East St. Louis riots of 1917. Original caption reads "Mr. President, why not make America safe for democracy?"
1934 $100,000 gold certificate depicting Wilson.
Stamps memorializing Wilson
Woodrow Wilson Monument in Prague

Wilson defeated incumbent Republican William Howard Taft and third-party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to easily win the 1912 United States presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to do so since 1848.

In the 1896 presidential election, Wilson rejected Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan as too far to the left.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, c. 1920

Warren G. Harding

The 29th president of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death in 1923.

The 29th president of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death in 1923.

Portrait by Harris & Ewing, c. 1920
Harding's home in Marion, Ohio
Senator Joseph B. Foraker in 1908, his final full year as senator before his re-election defeat
Harding c. 1919
Harding begins his front porch campaign by accepting the Republican nomination, July 22, 1920.
"How Does He Do It?" In this Clifford Berryman cartoon, Harding and Cox ponder another big story of 1920: Babe Ruth's record-setting home run pace.
Harding campaigning in 1920
Harding takes the oath of office
Charles Evans Hughes, former Supreme Court justice and Harding's Secretary of State
Charles Dawes—the first budget director and later, vice president under Coolidge
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew W. Mellon advocated lower tax rates.
Harding's official White House portrait, c. 1922 by Edmund Hodgson Smart
Harding addresses the segregated crowd in Birmingham, Alabama, October 26, 1921
Harding (center) with Chief Justice Taft (left) and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Harding aboard the presidential train in Alaska, July 1923, with secretaries Hoover, Wallace, Work, and Mrs. Harding
Harding's funeral procession passing the White House
The Harding Tomb in Marion
Harding made his friend Frank E. Scobey Director of the Mint. Medal by Chief Engraver George T. Morgan.
Albert B. Fall, Harding's first Secretary of the Interior, became the first former cabinet member to be sent to prison for crimes committed in office.
Harry M. Daugherty was implicated in the scandals but was never convicted of any offense.
Charles R. Forbes, director of the Veterans' Bureau, who was sent to prison for defrauding the government
Charles E. Sawyer
Harding memorial issue, issued September 1, 1923
Warren and Florence Harding, c.1922. Florence Harding was highly protective of her husband's legacy.

In 1892, Harding traveled to Washington, where he met Democratic Nebraska Congressman William Jennings Bryan, and listened to the "Boy Orator of the Platte" speak on the floor of the House of Representatives.

Though Foraker had little chance of winning, he sought the Republican presidential nomination against his fellow Cincinnatian, Secretary of War William Howard Taft, who was Roosevelt's chosen successor.

1912 United States presidential election

The 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.

The 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.

A Punch cartoon by Leonard Raven-Hill, depicting the perceived aggression between Taft and Roosevelt.
Progressive convention, 1912
Eugene V. Debs's popular vote results were the highest for the Socialist party.
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302x302px
Results by state
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Debs
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others including Debs
A continuous cartogram of the 1912 United States presidential election
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others

Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson unseated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and defeated former President Theodore Roosevelt, who ran under the banner of the new Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party.

At the Democratic Convention, Wilson won the presidential nomination on the 46th ballot, defeating Speaker of the House Champ Clark and several other candidates with the support of William Jennings Bryan and other progressive Democrats.

Hughes in 1931

Charles Evans Hughes

American statesman, politician and jurist who served as the 11th Chief Justice of the United States from 1930 to 1941.

American statesman, politician and jurist who served as the 11th Chief Justice of the United States from 1930 to 1941.

Hughes in 1931
Hughes at the age of 16
Hughes with his wife and children, c. 1916
Gubernatorial portrait of Charles Evans Hughes
Hughes struck up a close friendship with Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
Hughes in Winona, Minnesota, during the 1916 presidential campaign campaigning on the Olympian
1916 electoral vote results
Hughes's residence in 1921
Hughes (fourth from right) leads a delegation to Brazil with Carl Theodore Vogelgesang in 1922
Time cover, December 29, 1924
Mrs. Antoinette Carter, (Mr. Hughes's Wife)
Portrait of Hughes as Chief Justice
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon
Associate Justice William O. Douglas served alongside Hughes on the Supreme Court
Hughes's gravesite

In 1910, President William Howard Taft appointed Hughes as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

The Washington Naval Conference opened in November 1921, attended by five national delegations, and, in the gallery, hundreds of reporters and dignitaries such as Chief Justice Taft and William Jennings Bryan.

1908 United States presidential election

The 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908.

The 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908.

The aging and balding "Boy Orator of the Platte" delivers a speech.
Map of presidential election results by county
Roosevelt handing over his policies to his political protégé, William H. Taft.
650px
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county
Taft-Sherman postcard
Collier's magazine cover
Humorous postcard
John Johnson ribbon
Taft-Sherman postcard with U.S. Capitol
Bryan-Kern postcard with U.S. Capitol

Secretary of War and Republican Party nominee William Howard Taft defeated three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan.

Robert M. La Follette

For his son, also a senator, see Robert M. La Follette Jr. "Fighting Bob" redirects here.

For his son, also a senator, see Robert M. La Follette Jr. "Fighting Bob" redirects here.

Robert M. La Follette's college yearbook photo, 1879
Portrait from History of the Bench and Bar of Wisconsin, vol. 2, 1898
La Follette addressing a large Chautauqua assembly in Decatur, Illinois, 1905
La Follette in 1908
La Follette in 1912
Time cover, December 3, 1923
La Follette recording a radio speech in 1924, shortly before his death
1924 presidential election results by county. Counties won by La Follette are marked green.
La Follette with his wife and daughter in February 1924

He initially supported President William Howard Taft, but broke with Taft after the latter failed to push a reduction in tariff rates.

He also strongly endorsed McKinley's run for president in the 1896 election, and he denounced Democratic presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan as a radical.

William McKinley

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

McKinley, aged 15
Rutherford B. Hayes was McKinley's mentor during and after the Civil War.
McKinley in 1865, just after the war, photograph by Mathew Brady
Ida Saxton McKinley
Katherine McKinley
Representative McKinley
'Judge' magazine cover from September 1890, showing McKinley (left) having helped dispatch Speaker Reed's opponent in early-voting Maine, hurrying off with the victor to McKinley's "jerrymandered" Ohio district
Even after his final run for president in 1884, James G. Blaine was still seen as a possible candidate for the Republican nomination. In this 1890 Puck cartoon, he is startling Reed and McKinley (right) as they make their plans for 1892.
McKinley's close friend and adviser, Mark Hanna
Louis Dalrymple cartoon from Puck magazine, June 24, 1896, showing McKinley about to crown himself with the Republican nomination. The "priests" are Hanna (in green) and Representative Charles H. Grosvenor (red); H. H. Kohlsaat is the page holding the robe.
Before the 1896 convention, McKinley tried to avoid coming down on one side or the other of the currency question. William Allen Rogers's cartoon from Harper's Weekly, June 1896, showing McKinley riding the rail of the currency question.
William and Ida McKinley (to her husband's left) pose with members of the "Flower Delegation" from Oil City, Pennsylvania, before the McKinley home. Although women could not vote in most states, they might influence male relatives and were encouraged to visit Canton.
A Man of Mark 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon of McKinley as Hanna's creature, from William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal
1896 Electoral vote results
Editorial cartoon intervention in Cuba. Columbia (the American people) reaches out to help oppressed Cuba in 1897 while Uncle Sam (the U.S. government) is blind to the crisis and will not use its powerful guns to help. Judge magazine, February 6, 1897.
Signing of the Treaty of Paris
Annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
American soldiers scale the walls of Beijing to relieve the siege of the International Legations, August 1900
1900 reelection poster with the theme that McKinley has returned prosperity to America
McKinley, (right of center) flanked by Georgia Governor Allen D. Candler (front row to McKinley's right) and Gen. William Rufus Shafter, reviewing the Atlanta Peace Jubilee parade, December 15, 1898
McKinley ran on his record of prosperity and victory in 1900, winning easy re-election over William Jennings Bryan.
McKinley entering the Temple of Music on September 6, 1901, shortly before the shots were fired
Artist's conception of the shooting of McKinley
The official Presidential portrait of William McKinley, by Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy
Chief Justice Melville Fuller swears in William McKinley as president; outgoing President Grover Cleveland at right
McKinley's tomb in Canton, Ohio
William McKinley Monument by Hermon MacNeil in front of the Ohio Statehouse, Columbus
McKinley Monument by Alexander Phimister Proctor in front of Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo
McKinley on the $500 bill
Louisiana Purchase Exposition stamp (1904) honoring McKinley, who had signed a bill authorizing a subsidy for that upcoming event
McKinley Monument in front of Lucas County Courthouse, Toledo

He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" (the gold standard unless altered by international agreement) and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity.

Other McKinley appointees who later became major figures include Day, whom Roosevelt elevated to the Supreme Court where he remained nearly 20 years, and William Howard Taft, whom McKinley had made Governor-General of the Philippines and who succeeded Roosevelt as president.

Seal of Arlington National Cemetery

Arlington National Cemetery

United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 639 acre the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars.

United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 639 acre the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars.

Seal of Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery East Entrance & The Womens Military Museum
Officers of the 8th New York State Militia at Arlington House, June 1861
The Arlington Mansion, when it was known as Custis-Lee Mansion, seen with Union soldiers on its lawn on June 28, 1864
Arlington House
Arlington National Cemetery and the Netherlands Carillon in December 2012
The Old Guard transports the flag-draped casket of the second Sergeant Major of the Army, George W. Dunaway, who was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
Gravestones at the cemetery are marked by U.S. flags each Memorial Day
A portion of Arlington Woods on Humphreys Drive (2013)
Map showing the Millennium Project's expansion of Arlington National Cemetery into Arlington Woods and Fort Myer
Arlington National Cemetery, Millenium Projects
Wreaths donated by Worcester Wreath company in 2005
Graves of former slaves, marked "Citizen", in Section 27
The interior of Memorial Amphitheater
Arlington Amphitheater 1922 issue
The USS Maine Mast Memorial
The flag at Arlington House is lowered to half-staff during interments.
Military funeral procession in Arlington National Cemetery, July 1967
Respectful silence is requested at the Arlington National Cemetery.
The grave marker of former U.S. President John F. Kennedy

The amphitheater seats 1,500 people and has hosted speakers such as William Jennings Bryan.

Five state funerals have been held at Arlington: those of Presidents William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy, his two brothers, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Edward "Ted" Kennedy, as well as General of the Armies John J. Pershing.

A late 19th century photograph of Filipino Katipuneros

Philippine–American War

Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.

Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.

A late 19th century photograph of Filipino Katipuneros
Emilio Aguinaldo in the field
Personifying the United States, Uncle Sam chases a bee representing Emilio Aguinaldo.
1899 political cartoon by Winsor McCay
1898 US political cartoon. U.S. President William McKinley is shown holding the Philippines, depicted as a native child, as the world looks on. The implied options for McKinley are to keep the Philippines, or give it back to Spain, which the cartoon compares to throwing a child off a cliff.
Philippines, Manila, 1899– U.S. soldiers and insurrecto prisoners
Filipino soldiers outside Manila in 1899
Wounded American soldiers at Santa Mesa, Manila in 1899
The Battle of Caloocan, February 10, 1899. Major General Arthur MacArthur with binoculars.
Utah Light Artillery in action in the Philippines, 1899
20th Kansas Volunteers marching through Caloocan at night, 1899
Photograph of Young's Scouts in the Philippines, including Medal of Honor recipients Marcus W. Robertson (2nd from right, front row squating) and Richard M. Longfellow (4th from right, front row squating)
Attack on the barracks of Company C of the 13th Minnesota Volunteers by Filipino forces during the Tondo Fire in Manila, 1899
Remnants of rifles used by Filipino soldiers during the war on display at the museum on Clark Air Base
A group of Filipino combatants laying down their weapons during their surrender, c. 1900
The 24th U.S. Infantry (primarily made up of African-American soldiers) at drill in Camp Walker, Cebu, 1902
Governor General William Howard Taft addressing the audience at the Philippine Assembly in the Manila Grand Opera House, October 16, 1907
Captain Cornelius C. Smith, a Medal of Honor recipient, with members of the 14th Cavalry Regiment in 1904
General Jacob H. Smith's infamous order "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN" became the caption in the New York Journal cartoon on May 5, 1902. The Old Glory draped an American shield on which a vulture replaced the bald eagle. The caption at the bottom proclaimed, "Criminals Because They Were Born Ten Years Before We Took the Philippines".
1902 Life magazine cover, depicting water curing by U.S. Army troops in the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo's quarters in Manila following his capture by the Americans.
American troops guarding the bridge over the Pasig River
Aguinaldo (seated 3d from right) and other insurgent leaders., ca. 1900
Manuel L. Quezón, the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (from 1935 to 1944) and former revolutionary military commander

The hope was to inflict enough American casualties to result in McKinley's defeat by William Jennings Bryan in the 1900 presidential election.

The Second Philippine Commission, appointed by President McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers.