William IV, Prince of Orange

Wilhelm IVWilliam IVPrince of OrangePrince William IVWillem IVPrince William of OrangeThe Prince of OrangeWilliam IV of OrangePrince William IV of OrangeWillem IV of Orange
William IV (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751) was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces.wikipedia
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Stadtholder

stadholderstadhouderstatholder
William IV (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751) was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces. William succeeded his father as Stadtholder of Friesland and also, under the regency of his mother until 1731, as Stadtholder of Groningen.
For the last half century of its existence, it became an officially hereditary role and thus a monarchy (though maintaining republican pretence) under Prince William IV.

Leeuwarden

Leeuwarden, NetherlandsLeeuwarden/LjouwertLeeuwarden, Friesland
William was born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, the son of John William Friso, Prince of Orange, head of the Frisian branch of the House of Orange-Nassau, and of his wife Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel).
In 1747 William IV, Prince of Orange was the last stadtholder residing in the Stadhouderlijk Hof.

Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel

Marie Louise of Hesse-KasselMarie LouiseDowager Princess Marie Louise
William was born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, the son of John William Friso, Prince of Orange, head of the Frisian branch of the House of Orange-Nassau, and of his wife Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel).
Marie Louise is notable for having served as regent for two periods in Dutch history: during the reigns of her young son, William IV, Prince of Orange from 1711 and 1730, and of her young grandson, William V, Prince of Orange, from 1759 to 1765.

John William Friso, Prince of Orange

John William FrisoJohan Willem FrisoJohan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz
William was born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, the son of John William Friso, Prince of Orange, head of the Frisian branch of the House of Orange-Nassau, and of his wife Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel).
His son William IV, Prince of Orange, however, later became stadtholder of all seven provinces.

House of Orange-Nassau

Orange-NassauOrangeHouse of Orange
William IV (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751) was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces. William was born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, the son of John William Friso, Prince of Orange, head of the Frisian branch of the House of Orange-Nassau, and of his wife Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel).
John William Friso drowned in 1711 in the Hollands Diep near Moerdijk, and he left his posthumously born son William IV, Prince of Orange.

Second Stadtholderless Period

conflict1702-1747French troops invaded the Republic in 1747
The four other provinces of the Dutch Republic:, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel had in 1702 decided not to appoint a stadtholder after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing the history of the Republic into a period that is known as the Second Stadtholderless Period.
The Second Stadtholderless Period or Era (Tweede Stadhouderloze Tijdperk) is the designation in Dutch historiography of the period between the death of stadtholder William III on March 19, 1702 and the appointment of William IV as stadtholder and captain general in all provinces of the Dutch Republic on May 2, 1747.

Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange

AnneAnne, Princess RoyalAnne, Princess of Orange
On 25 March 1734 he married at St James's Palace Anne, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach.
She was the spouse of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of all seven provinces of the Northern Netherlands.

Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau

Princess CarolinaCarolinaCarolina of Orange-Nassau
Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau (28 February 1743 – 6 May 1787), married Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg
She was the daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and Anne, Princess Royal.

William V, Prince of Orange

William VPrince of OrangeWillem V
William V, Prince of Orange (8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806)
William Batavus was born in The Hague on 8 March 1748, the only son of William IV, who had the year before been restored as stadtholder of the United Provinces.

Charles Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg

Charles ChristianCharles Christian, 3rd Prince of Nassau-WeilburgPrince of Nassau
Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau (28 February 1743 – 6 May 1787), married Karl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg
He married on 5 March 1760 in The Hague Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau (1743–1787), daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange and Anne, Princess Royal.

Orangeburg, South Carolina

OrangeburgOrangeburg, SCOrangeburg (SC) Wilkinson
The county of Orange, Virginia, and the city of Orangeburg, South Carolina, are named after him.
To encourage settlement, the General Assembly of the Province of South Carolina in 1730 organized the area as a township, naming it Orangeburg for Prince William IV of Orange, the son-in-law of King George II of Great Britain.

William III of England

William IIIWilliam of OrangeKing William III
The four other provinces of the Dutch Republic:, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel had in 1702 decided not to appoint a stadtholder after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing the history of the Republic into a period that is known as the Second Stadtholderless Period.
Friso's posthumous son, William IV, succeeded to the title at his birth in 1711; in the Treaty of Partition (1732) he agreed to share the title "Prince of Orange" with Frederick William.

Prince of Orange

Princes of OrangePrincess consort of OrangeLouis de Mailly, marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, Prince d'Orange
After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732); consequently, Friso's son, William IV had to share use of the title "Prince of Orange" (which had accumulated prestige in the Netherlands and throughout the Protestant world) with Frederick William I of Prussia.

Dutch States Army

States ArmyDutch servicearmy
William first met Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1747, and two years later appointed him field marshal of the Dutch States Army, which later led to Louis Ernest serving as one of the regents for William's heir.
As most provinces selected the same person (a member of the House of Orange-Nassau after 1586) as their stadtholder this did not lead to a divided command in practice, even though a potential conflict was present, because the province of Friesland always had a different stadtholder (and captain-general), until William IV received the appointment in all provinces in 1747.

Caroline of Ansbach

Queen CarolineCarolinePrincess of Wales
On 25 March 1734 he married at St James's Palace Anne, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach.
Caroline's eldest daughter Anne married William IV of Orange in 1734, and moved with her husband to the Netherlands.

Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburgduke of BrunswijkLouis Ernest
William first met Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1747, and two years later appointed him field marshal of the Dutch States Army, which later led to Louis Ernest serving as one of the regents for William's heir.
In the following year, he fought in the battle of Lauffeldt as Feldzeugmeister or supreme artillery commander, and met stadholder William IV, Prince of Orange, then involved in border battles against France.

George II of Great Britain

George IIKing George IIPrince of Wales
On 25 March 1734 he married at St James's Palace Anne, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach.

Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)

Nieuwe KerkNew ChurchNieuwe Kerk in Delft
Eldest stillborn daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange (1736)

Dutch Republic

United ProvincesDutchNetherlands
William IV (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751) was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces. The four other provinces of the Dutch Republic:, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel had in 1702 decided not to appoint a stadtholder after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing the history of the Republic into a period that is known as the Second Stadtholderless Period.

Frisia

FrieslandFrisianFriesian
William was born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands, the son of John William Friso, Prince of Orange, head of the Frisian branch of the House of Orange-Nassau, and of his wife Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel).

Friesland

FrisianFrisiaFryslân
William succeeded his father as Stadtholder of Friesland and also, under the regency of his mother until 1731, as Stadtholder of Groningen.

Groningen (province)

Groningenprovince of GroningenGroningen province
William succeeded his father as Stadtholder of Friesland and also, under the regency of his mother until 1731, as Stadtholder of Groningen.

Guelders

Duchy of GueldersGelderlandGelre
In 1722 he was elected Stadtholder of Guelders.

Holland's Magazine

DutchHollandStates of Holland
The four other provinces of the Dutch Republic:, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel had in 1702 decided not to appoint a stadtholder after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing the history of the Republic into a period that is known as the Second Stadtholderless Period.

Zeeland

ZealandProvince of Zeelandclose region
The four other provinces of the Dutch Republic:, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel had in 1702 decided not to appoint a stadtholder after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing the history of the Republic into a period that is known as the Second Stadtholderless Period.