William McKinley

McKinley, aged 15
Rutherford B. Hayes was McKinley's mentor during and after the Civil War.
McKinley in 1865, just after the war, photograph by Mathew Brady
Ida Saxton McKinley
Katherine McKinley
Representative McKinley
'Judge' magazine cover from September 1890, showing McKinley (left) having helped dispatch Speaker Reed's opponent in early-voting Maine, hurrying off with the victor to McKinley's "jerrymandered" Ohio district
Even after his final run for president in 1884, James G. Blaine was still seen as a possible candidate for the Republican nomination. In this 1890 Puck cartoon, he is startling Reed and McKinley (right) as they make their plans for 1892.
McKinley's close friend and adviser, Mark Hanna
Louis Dalrymple cartoon from Puck magazine, June 24, 1896, showing McKinley about to crown himself with the Republican nomination. The "priests" are Hanna (in green) and Representative Charles H. Grosvenor (red); H. H. Kohlsaat is the page holding the robe.
Before the 1896 convention, McKinley tried to avoid coming down on one side or the other of the currency question. William Allen Rogers's cartoon from Harper's Weekly, June 1896, showing McKinley riding the rail of the currency question.
William and Ida McKinley (to her husband's left) pose with members of the "Flower Delegation" from Oil City, Pennsylvania, before the McKinley home. Although women could not vote in most states, they might influence male relatives and were encouraged to visit Canton.
A Man of Mark 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon of McKinley as Hanna's creature, from William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal
1896 Electoral vote results
Editorial cartoon intervention in Cuba. Columbia (the American people) reaches out to help oppressed Cuba in 1897 while Uncle Sam (the U.S. government) is blind to the crisis and will not use its powerful guns to help. Judge magazine, February 6, 1897.
Signing of the Treaty of Paris
Annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
American soldiers scale the walls of Beijing to relieve the siege of the International Legations, August 1900
1900 reelection poster with the theme that McKinley has returned prosperity to America
McKinley, (right of center) flanked by Georgia Governor Allen D. Candler (front row to McKinley's right) and Gen. William Rufus Shafter, reviewing the Atlanta Peace Jubilee parade, December 15, 1898
McKinley ran on his record of prosperity and victory in 1900, winning easy re-election over William Jennings Bryan.
McKinley entering the Temple of Music on September 6, 1901, shortly before the shots were fired
Artist's conception of the shooting of McKinley
The official Presidential portrait of William McKinley, by Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy
Chief Justice Melville Fuller swears in William McKinley as president; outgoing President Grover Cleveland at right
McKinley's tomb in Canton, Ohio
William McKinley Monument by Hermon MacNeil in front of the Ohio Statehouse, Columbus
McKinley Monument by Alexander Phimister Proctor in front of Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo
McKinley on the $500 bill
Louisiana Purchase Exposition stamp (1904) honoring McKinley, who had signed a bill authorizing a subsidy for that upcoming event
McKinley Monument in front of Lucas County Courthouse, Toledo

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

- William McKinley

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Photograph by Mathew Brady

John Sherman

Politician from the U.S. state of Ohio during the American Civil War and into the late nineteenth century.

Politician from the U.S. state of Ohio during the American Civil War and into the late nineteenth century.

Photograph by Mathew Brady
Sherman at age 19
Margaret Cecilia Stewart
Congressman John Sherman
Sherman worked with Justin Smith Morrill to pass tariff legislation in 1860.
A Demand Note (top) and a United States Note (bottom)
Senator John Sherman
A silver dollar of the type Sherman said he never saw in circulation
A cartoon from the April 9, 1870 issue of Harper's Weekly anticipates the resumption of government payments in precious-metal coins.
Hayes's cabinet in 1877
Sherman appointed John Jay to investigate corruption in the New York Custom House.
James A. Garfield emerged the unexpected nominee at the 1880 Republican National Convention.
While serving in the Senate, Sherman lived in this house at 1323 K St. NW, Washington, D.C.
Sherman in his Senate office, about 1894
An 1885 political cartoon accuses Sherman and Foraker of fanning section hatred for political gain.
An 1889 cartoon suggests that the monopolies held too much power over Congress.
A $100 Treasury Note, authorized by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, redeemable in gold or silver coin
Caricature by Mecachis published in Blanco y Negro (March 21, 1896) depicting Sherman, then Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and the suggestion for the kind of diplomacy that should be enacted by Spain.
An 1897 political cartoon by Louis Dalrymple depicts Sherman as a young woman attempting to answer major U.S. diplomatic questions by playing the game He loves me ... he loves me not.
Sherman's home in Mansfield, Ohio

In 1897, President William McKinley appointed him Secretary of State.

1900 United States presidential election

The 29th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1900.

The 29th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1900.

Campaign poster promoting Democratic nominee William J. Bryan
McKinley campaigns on gold coin (gold standard) with support from soldiers, businessmen, farmers and professionals, claiming to restore prosperity at home and victory abroad
The German-American vote in 1900 was in doubt since they opposed both Bryan's "repudiation" policy and overseas "expansion" under McKinley.
Map of presidential election results by county
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Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

In a re-match of the 1896 race, incumbent Republican President William McKinley defeated his Democratic challenger, William Jennings Bryan.

Under an 1853 act, depositors could no longer have their metal struck into half dollars.

Coinage Act of 1873

General revision of laws relating to the Mint of the United States.

General revision of laws relating to the Mint of the United States.

Under an 1853 act, depositors could no longer have their metal struck into half dollars.
John Jay Knox, photographed by Mathew Brady
Senator John Sherman shepherded the bill through Congress.
The standard silver dollar was abolished by the Coinage Act of 1873.
Medal (by Chief Engraver William Barber) struck for the 1873 Assay Commission. The casket on the reverse honors Philadelphia Mint Assayer Jacob Eckfeldt, who had recently died.
The Trade dollar, intended for use in the Far East, became controversial when circulated in the U.S.
The gold standard triumphant: a caricature from Puck magazine, 1900.
The arrows by the date of this half dollar show that it is one made after the Coinage Act increased its weight to 12.5 grams.

Bryan was defeated in the election by former Ohio governor William McKinley, and in 1900, Congress passed the Gold Standard Act, placing that standard into law.

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

Many veterans on both sides were subsequently elected to political office, including five U.S. Presidents: General Ulysses Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, and William McKinley.

President of the United States

Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

George Washington, the first president of the United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a radio address, 1933
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr. and others look on
President Donald Trump delivers his 2018 State of the Union Address, with Vice President Mike Pence and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Gorbachev sign the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord in the White House.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
President Barack Obama with his Supreme Court appointee Justice Sotomayor, 2009
President Ronald Reagan reviews honor guards during a state visit to China, 1984
President Woodrow Wilson throws out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1916
President Jimmy Carter (left) debates Republican nominee Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1980.
Map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated following the 2010 census to each state and the District of Columbia for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections; it also notes that Maine and Nebraska distribute electors by way of the congressional district method. 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible.
Franklin D. Roosevelt won a record four presidential elections (1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944), leading to the adoption of a two-term limit.
President William McKinley and his successor, Theodore Roosevelt
President Reagan surrounded by Secret Service
From left: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009; Obama formally took office thirteen days later.
Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum in Dallas, 2013
White House, the official residence
Camp David, the official retreat
Blair House, the official guest house
The presidential limousine, dubbed "The Beast"
The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is on board
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard

In 1900, William McKinley became the first incumbent to win re-election since Grant in 1872.

Hearst, c. 1910

William Randolph Hearst

American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications.

American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications.

Hearst, c. 1910
An ad asking automakers to place ads in Hearst chain, noting their circulation.
From left to right: Hearst, Robert Vignola and Arthur Brisbane in New York, during the filming of Vignola's The World and His Wife (1920)
Hearst circa 1900.
Cartoonist Rogers in 1906 sees the political uses of Oz: he depicts Hearst as the Scarecrow stuck in his own oozy mud in Harper's Weekly.
Puck magazine published this cartoon in its edition of October 31, 1906. Seen as supporting "Hoist" in his bid for governor are Happy Hooligan, Foxy Grandpa, Alphonse and Gaston, Buster Brown, The Katzenjammer Kids, and Maud the mule. All of these comic strips ran in newspapers owned by Hearst.
Millicent Hearst
Marion Davies
Hearst Castle, California.
Painting of a landscape with a huntsman and dead game (Allegory of the Sense of Smell) by Jan Weenix, 1697, once owned by Hearst

Its coverage of that election was probably the most important of any newspaper in the country, attacking relentlessly the unprecedented role of money in the Republican campaign and the dominating role played by William McKinley's political and financial manager, Mark Hanna, the first national party 'boss' in American history.

William Jennings Bryan carried on the shoulders of delegates after giving the speech

Cross of Gold speech

Delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896.

Delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896.

William Jennings Bryan carried on the shoulders of delegates after giving the speech
Congressman Richard P. Bland
The Chicago Coliseum
Former Iowa Governor Horace Boies was a major contender for the Democratic nomination for president in 1896.
In a 1900 engraving, former Massachusetts Governor William E. Russell is shown preceding Bryan in addressing the convention.
The 1896 Democratic National Convention
Judge magazine criticized Bryan for sacrilege in his speech. He is shown with crown and cross, but trampling the Bible.
Bryan campaigning on stage a few months after the speech
A "Bryan dollar" issued by his opponents to illustrate the difference between the size of a silver dollar and the amount of bullion that could be purchased with a dollar.

However, he lost the general election to William McKinley, and the United States formally adopted the gold standard in 1900.

Hobart in 1896

Garret Hobart

The 24th vice president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1899.

The 24th vice president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1899.

Hobart in 1896
Hobart as a young boy
Paterson lawyer Socrates Tuttle, who both taught Hobart the law and helped advance his political career
Hobart at his desk, date unknown
Jennie Tuttle Hobart
"Pioneer Cleveland": Puck magazine cartoon showing the Republicans following the path of the gold standard which President Grover Cleveland (right) has blazed. Hobart, in black coat just left of center, wears a campaign ribbon with his name on it, and walks between McKinley and former president Benjamin Harrison (with gray hat).
McKinley (left) and Hobart, photographed in Long Branch, New Jersey during the summer of 1899
Vice President Hobart
Mausoleum of Garret and Jennie Hobart, Cedar Lawn Cemetery, Paterson. Erected 1902.
Statue of Garret Hobart by Philip Martiny, Paterson
McKinley/Hobart campaign poster

Hobart's political views were similar to those of William McKinley, the presumptive Republican presidential candidate.

Carte-de-visite photo, circa 1882

Levi P. Morton

The 22nd vice president of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

The 22nd vice president of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

Carte-de-visite photo, circa 1882
Brady-Handy photo, circa 1876
From 1889 until 1895, Morton lived at this residence in Washington, DC.
Gubernatorial portrait of Levi P. Morton
Morton in 1908

Morton was a leading contender for the Republican presidential nomination in 1896, but the delegates chose William McKinley.

George Dewey

Admiral of the Navy, the only person in United States history to have attained that rank.

Admiral of the Navy, the only person in United States history to have attained that rank.

Admiral Dewey as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
George Dewey
Detail of a painting in the Vermont State House depicting Dewey on the USS Olympia (C-6) during the Battle of Manila Bay
Dewey on the cover of an 1899 souvenir calendar
Mildred Hazen Dewey
Dewey in 1899 art from Puck, which was the first successful humor magazine in the United States
Dewey in special full dress uniform as Admiral of the Navy.

Dewey explored a run for the 1900 Democratic presidential nomination, but he withdrew from the race and endorsed President William McKinley.