William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne

Lord ShelburneEarl of ShelburneThe Earl of ShelburneShelburneWilliam Petty, 1st Marquess of LansdowneViscount FitzMaurice2nd Earl of ShelburneWilliam PettyLord LansdowneWilliam Petty-FitzMaurice, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805; known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history) was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.wikipedia
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Home Secretary

Secretary of State for the Home DepartmentHome SecretariesBritish Home Secretary
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805; known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history) was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.

President of the Board of Trade

First Lord of TradeBoard of TradePresident
He served as President of the Board of Trade in the Grenville Ministry but resigned this position after only a few months and began to associate with the opposition leader William Pitt.

William Petty

Sir William PettyDr William PettyDr. William Petty
Lord Kerry had married Anne Petty, the daughter of Sir William Petty, Surveyor General of Ireland, whose elder son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1688 and (on the elder son's death) whose younger son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1699 and Earl of Shelburne in 1719.
He was the great-grandfather of Prime Minister William Petty Fitzmaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne and 1st Marquess of Lansdowne.

John Petty, 1st Earl of Shelburne

John FitzMauriceThe Earl of ShelburneJohn Petty
He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, who was the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry.
He was the father of William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805; known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history) was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.
The North administration left power in March 1782 following the American Revolution and a coalition of the Rockingham Whigs and the former Chathamites, now led by the Earl of Shelburne, took its place.

Peace of Paris (1783)

Peace of ParisTreaty of VersaillesTreaty of Paris
Shelburne's government was brought down largely due to the terms of the Peace of Paris which brought the conflict to an end.
The King's choice as replacement, Lord Shelburne (who, though an old friend of Benjamin Franklin, had initially stated in February that he "would never consent, under any possible given circumstances, to acknowledge the independency of America") refused the post, leading to the formation of a strange new government team, nominally led by Lord Rockingham, whom the King hated, with Shelburne and Charles James Fox, who hated each other, as Secretaries of State.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805; known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history) was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.
Rockingham died and was succeeded by the Earl of Shelburne.

Corsican Crisis

failure to prevent Francewidely attacked
He departed office during the Corsican Crisis and joined the Opposition.
While Grafton and his foreign minister, Lord Shelburne, opposed the French seizing the island they saw there being little they could do to prevent it.

Peerage of Great Britain

Great Britainpeeragepeer
However, on 14 May 1761, before either Parliament met, he succeeded on his father's death as 2nd Earl of Shelburne in the Peerage of Ireland and 2nd Baron Wycombe in the Peerage of Great Britain.

Isaac Barré

Isaac BarreBarrè
He was succeeded in Wycombe by one of his supporters Colonel Isaac Barré who had a distinguished war record after serving with James Wolfe in Canada.
During the French and Indian War, he served under his patron General James Wolfe on the Rochefort expedition of 1757, when he first met Lord Shelburne, and afterwards in Canada where he was appointed adjutant-general, fighting at both Louisbourg (1758) and Quebec (1759).

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
As a reward for his conduct at the Battle of Kloster Kampen, Shelburne was appointed an aide-de-camp to George III.
The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him.

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham

William PittWilliam Pitt the ElderPitt
He served as President of the Board of Trade in the Grenville Ministry but resigned this position after only a few months and began to associate with the opposition leader William Pitt.
Pitt made appointments based not on connections but on merit, such as Charles Townshend to the Exchequer and Shelburne as Secretary of State, to order American affairs.

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham

Lord RockinghamMarquess of RockinghamRockingham
Following the fall of the North government, Shelburne joined its replacement under Lord Rockingham.
In 1782 he was appointed Prime Minister for a second time (with Charles James Fox and Lord Shelburne as Secretaries of State) and, upon taking office, pushed for an acknowledgement of the independence of the United States, initiating an end to British involvement in the American War of Independence.

Shelburne, Massachusetts

ShelburneShelburne, MAMassachusetts
In June 1768 the General Court incorporated the district of Shelburne, Massachusetts from the area formerly known as "Deerfield Northeast" and in 1786 the district became a town.
It was initially organized as the district of Shelburne in 1768, named in honor of William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, an Irish-born British politician, who later served as Prime Minister during the American Revolutionary War.

William Pitt the Younger

William PittPittPitt the Younger
One of the figures brought in as a replacement was the 23-year-old William Pitt, son of Shelburne's former political ally, who became Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Lord Rockingham died only three months after coming to power; he was succeeded by another Whig, William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne.

Fox–North coalition

Fox-North CoalitionFox–NorthEast India Bill
Fox's departure led to the unexpected creation of a coalition involving Fox and Lord North which dominated the Opposition.
Fox was a Whig by background and North came from the nominal Tory Party, however both had fallen out with the government of Lord Shelburne.

Charles James Fox

FoxCharles FoxHon. Charles James Fox
Shelburne's appointment by the King provoked Charles James Fox and his supporters, including Edmund Burke, to resign their posts on 4 July 1782.
Fox refused to serve in the successor administration of the Earl of Shelburne, splitting the Whig party; Fox's father had been convinced that Shelburne – a supporter of the elder Pitt – had thwarted his ministerial ambitions at the time of the 1763 peace.

Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry

Thomas FitzMauriceThomas Fitzmaurice, 21st Baron Kerry1st Earl of Kerry
He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, who was the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry.
Thomas FitzMaurice was the grandfather of William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Kerry (Parliament of Ireland constituency)

KerryCounty Kerryin both the Irish
He was re-elected unopposed at the general election of 1761, and was also elected to the Irish House of Commons for County Kerry.

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne

Lord Henry PettyThe Marquess of LansdowneLord Lansdowne
Lansdowne was the son of Prime Minister William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (better known as the Earl of Shelburne) by his second marriage to Lady Louisa, daughter of John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory.

Lansdowne portrait

classic portrait of George WashingtonGeorge WashingtonLansdowne Portrait of George Washington
*Lansdowne portrait
The original portrait was a gift to former British Prime Minister William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne.

John Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne

Earl WycombeMarquess of LansdowneJohn Henry Petty Fitzmaurice, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne
*John Henry Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne (6 December 1765 – 15 November 1809), who sat in the House of Commons for twenty years as member for Chipping Wycombe before inheriting his father's marquessate.
He was the eldest son of William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, known to history as the Earl of Shelburne, the British prime minister who concluded the Peace of Paris recognising American independence, by his first wife, Lady Sophia Carteret.

Thomas Fitzmaurice (MP)

Thomas FitzMauriceHon. Thomas FitzMauriceThe Hon. Thomas FitzMaurice
His elder brother William was an MP before he inherited the family titles on his father's death in 1761; he later became Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1782 and was created Marquess of Lansdowne in 1784.

Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond

Duke of RichmondCharles Lennox3rd Duke of Richmond
In response to the appointment the Duke of Richmond resigned a post in the royal household.

Wycombe (UK Parliament constituency)

WycombeChipping WycombeChipping Wycombe (seat 1/2)
On 2 June 1760, while still abroad, Fitzmaurice had been returned to the British House of Commons as member for Wycombe.