William Walker (filibuster)

William WalkerWalkerGeneral Walkershares his nameWalker ExpeditionWalkers FilibusterWilliam Walker's conquest of Nicaragua
William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".wikipedia
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Latin America

Latin AmericanLatinLatin-American
William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".
The second event happened the same year both works were written, in opposition to the decision by U.S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime recently established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year, 1856-57.

Honduras

Honduran🇭🇳Hondurans
He returned in an attempt to reestablish his control of the region and was captured and executed by the government of Honduras in 1860.
The word was coined by Nicaraguans and derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who in 1857 led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North American adventurer William Walker.

Nicaragua

🇳🇮NicaraguanRepublic of Nicaragua
Walker usurped the presidency of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies.
Invited by the Liberals in 1855 to join their struggle against the Conservatives, a United States adventurer and filibuster named William Walker set himself up as President of Nicaragua, after conducting a farcical election in 1856.

John Norvell

One of Walker's maternal uncles was John Norvell, a Senator from Michigan and founder of The Philadelphia Inquirer.
Mary Norvell, Lipscomb's daughter, married James Walker, the father of William Walker (1824–1860) a soldier of fortune or filibusterer in Nicaragua in 1857.

President of Nicaragua

PresidentHead of State of NicaraguaNicaraguan President
Walker usurped the presidency of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies.

Republic of Sonora

Republic of Lower California/Republic of SonoraRepublics of ''Lower California'' and ''SonoraSonora
His plans then expanded from forming a buffer colony to establishing an independent Republic of Sonora, which might eventually take its place as a part of the American Union as the Republic of Texas had done.
The Republic of Sonora was a short-lived, unrecognized federal republic ruled by filibuster William Walker in 1854.

Republic of Baja California

Republic of Lower California
He succeeded in capturing La Paz, the capital of sparsely populated Baja California, which he declared the capital of a new Republic of Lower California, with himself as president and his former law partner, Henry P. Watkins, as vice president.
The Republic of Baja California was a proposed state from 1853 to 1854, after American private military leader William Walker failed to invade Sonora from the Arizona border.

Sonora

Sonora, MexicoSonora StateState of Sonora
He funded his project by "selling scrips which were redeemable in lands of Sonora."
The area's political vulnerability immediately after the war made it susceptible to buccaneers such as William Walker, Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon, and Henry Alexander Crabb, who attacked Sonoran ports such as Guaymas and Caborca.

Filibuster (military)

filibusterfilibustersfilibustering
William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".
Several Americans were involved in freelance military schemes, including Aaron Burr, William Blount (West Florida), Augustus W. Magee (Texas), George Mathews (East Florida), George Rogers Clark (Louisiana and Mississippi), William S. Smith (Venezuela), Ira Allen (Canada), William Walker (Mexico and Nicaragua), William A. Chanler (Cuba and Venezuela) and James Long (Texas).

Ensenada, Baja California

EnsenadaEnsenada, MexicoPoint Ensenada
Fearful of attacks by Mexico, Walker moved his headquarters twice over the next three months, first to Cabo San Lucas, and then further north to Ensenada to maintain a more secure position of operations, because he lost to General Manuel Márquez de León.
In 1805, José Manuel Ruiz Carillo obtained permission to establish himself in Ensenada, being appointed governor of Baja California and building in Ensenada a house that survived until the final part of that century, despite being briefly taken by William Walker, the self-declared "president" of the Republic of Lower California, in 1853-54.

First Battle of Rivas

attacked the LegitimistsbattlesRivas
With Castellón's consent, Walker attacked the Legitimists in the town of Rivas, near the trans-isthmian route.
The First Battle of Rivas occurred on June 29, 1855, as part of the struggle to resist William Walker, an American filibuster, adventurer and soldier of fortune who arrived in Nicaragua with a small army of mercenaries in June 1855 in support of the Liberal democratic government of General Castellon in the Nicaraguan civil war.

Granada, Nicaragua

GranadaGranada, GranadaGranada city
In 1854, a civil war erupted in Nicaragua between the Legitimist Party (also called the Conservative Party), based in the city of Granada, and the Democratic Party (also called the Liberal Party), based in León.
It was also where William Walker, the American filibuster, took up residence and attempted to take control of Central America as a ruling president.

La Paz, Baja California Sur

La PazLa Paz, MexicoLa Paz Bay
He succeeded in capturing La Paz, the capital of sparsely populated Baja California, which he declared the capital of a new Republic of Lower California, with himself as president and his former law partner, Henry P. Watkins, as vice president.
From January 10, 1854 to May 8, 1854 it served as the capital of William Walker's Republic of Sonora.

Democratic Party (Nicaragua)

Democratic PartyDemocraticDemocrats
In 1854, a civil war erupted in Nicaragua between the Legitimist Party (also called the Conservative Party), based in the city of Granada, and the Democratic Party (also called the Liberal Party), based in León.
The Democrats rejected the constitution and the Legitimist government and fought against it with the help of filibuster William Walker.

Battle of Santa Rosa

Santa Rosa
This advance force was defeated at the Battle of Santa Rosa on March 20, 1856.
In the 19th century, Nicaragua was bested by political problems, allowing William Walker, an American Southerner seeking to establish English-speaking slavery states in Latin America, to ascend to the Nicaraguan presidency.

Filibuster War

campaignNational Campaign of 1856National Campaign of 1856-1857
The most important strategic defeat of Walker came during the Campaign of 1856–57 when the Costa Rican army, led by President Juan Rafael Mora Porras, General José Joaquín Mora Porras (the president's brother), and General José María Cañas (1809-1860), defeated the Filibusters in Rivas, Nicaragua on April 11, 1856 (the Second Battle of Rivas).
The Democratic party sought military support from William Walker who, to circumvent American neutrality laws, obtained a contract from Democratic president President Castellón to bring as many as three hundred "colonists" to Nicaragua.

Florencio Xatruch

Florencio Xatruch led his troops against Walker and the filibusters in la Puebla, Rivas.
Florencio Xatruch (October 21, 1811 – February 15, 1893), was a general who led the Honduran expeditionary force against William Walker in Nicaragua in 1856.

Second Battle of Rivas

Battle of Rivas Day
The most important strategic defeat of Walker came during the Campaign of 1856–57 when the Costa Rican army, led by President Juan Rafael Mora Porras, General José Joaquín Mora Porras (the president's brother), and General José María Cañas (1809-1860), defeated the Filibusters in Rivas, Nicaragua on April 11, 1856 (the Second Battle of Rivas).
The Second Battle of Rivas occurred on 11 April 1856 between Costa Rican militia under General Mora and the Nicaraguan forces of William Walker.

Charles Morgan (businessman)

Charles MorganNew York and Charleston Steam Packet CompanyCharles Waln Morgan
C. K. Garrison and Charles Morgan, subordinates of Cornelius Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company, provided financial and logistical support to the Filibusters in exchange for Walker, as ruler of Nicaragua, seizing the company's property (on the pretext of a charter violation) and turning it over to Garrison and Morgan.
These activities pulled him into business alliances and rivalries with Cornelius Vanderbilt which culminated in Morgan's support of William Walker's filibuster in Nicaragua.

Manifest destiny

Western expansionwestward expansionAmerican expansion
He began recruiting American supporters of slavery and Manifest Destiny doctrine, mostly inhabitants of Kentucky and Tennessee.
Filibusters like William Walker continued to garner headlines in the late 1850s, but to little effect.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

VanderbiltCommodore VanderbiltCornelius "Commodore" Vanderbilt
C. K. Garrison and Charles Morgan, subordinates of Cornelius Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company, provided financial and logistical support to the Filibusters in exchange for Walker, as ruler of Nicaragua, seizing the company's property (on the pretext of a charter violation) and turning it over to Garrison and Morgan. The commercial exploitation of this route had been granted by Nicaragua to the Accessory Transit Company, controlled by shipping magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt.
That same year, the American military adventurer, William Walker, led an expedition to Nicaragua and briefly took control of the government.

Hondurans

HonduranHondurasCatracho
The nickname by which Hondurans are known popularly still today, Catracho, and the more infamous nickname Salvadorans are known today, Salvatrucho are derived from Xatruch's figure and successful campaign as leader of the allied armies of Central America, as the troops of El Salvador and Honduras were national heroes, fighting side by side as Central American brothers against William Walker's troops.
The term was coined by Nicaraguans in the mid-19th century when Honduran General Florencio Xatruch returned from battle with his Honduras and El Salvador soldiers after defeating American freebooters commanded by William Walker, whose purpose was to re-establish slavery and take over all of Central America.

Parker H. French

Walker's first ambassadorial appointment, Colonel Parker H. French, was refused recognition.
Before he was 30, he was the leader of an infamous and fraudulent gold rush expedition; implicated in an irregular invasion of Cuba; jailed bandit and then military hero in Mexico; lawyer, district attorney, legislator, journalist, and political enforcer in California; senior conspirator in William Walker's conquest of Nicaragua; and, appointed but rejected Nicaraguan ambassador to the United States.

University of Edinburgh

EdinburghEdinburgh UniversityThe University of Edinburgh
He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and University of Heidelberg before receiving his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania at the age of 19. He practiced briefly in Philadelphia before moving to New Orleans to study law.

Lipscomb Norvell

His mother was the daughter of Lipscomb Norvell, an American Revolutionary War officer from Virginia.
One of his sons was U.S. Senator John Norvell of Michigan and his grandson, William Walker, the son of Mary Norvell Walker, was the filibuster in Nicaragua.