Wind chill

A chart of wind chill values for given air temperatures and wind speeds
alt=Graph of degrees of wind chill for wind speed and air temperature|Celsius wind chill index
Comparison of old and new wind chill values at {{convert|-15|°C|°F}}|alt=Graph comparing "old" and "new" wind chill values by wind speed at 15°C air temperature
alt=Picture of a manual wind chill calculator|Wind chill calculator

Lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air.

- Wind chill
A chart of wind chill values for given air temperatures and wind speeds

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Paul Siple in 1932

Paul Siple

American Antarctic explorer and geographer who took part in six Antarctic expeditions, including the two Byrd expeditions of 1928–1930 and 1933–1935, representing the Boy Scouts of America as an Eagle Scout.

American Antarctic explorer and geographer who took part in six Antarctic expeditions, including the two Byrd expeditions of 1928–1930 and 1933–1935, representing the Boy Scouts of America as an Eagle Scout.

Paul Siple in 1932

With Charles F. Passel he developed the wind chill factor, and Siple coined the term.

Dial showing the value of the heat index or the windchill at the intersection of the two hands (temperature and relative humidity).

Apparent temperature

No direct measurement of solar radiation in U.S. observation systems, and solar radiation can add up to 15 F-change to the apparent temperature, commercial weather companies have attempted to develop their own proprietary apparent temperature systems, including The Weather Company's "FeelsLike" and AccuWeather's "RealFeel".

No direct measurement of solar radiation in U.S. observation systems, and solar radiation can add up to 15 F-change to the apparent temperature, commercial weather companies have attempted to develop their own proprietary apparent temperature systems, including The Weather Company's "FeelsLike" and AccuWeather's "RealFeel".

Dial showing the value of the heat index or the windchill at the intersection of the two hands (temperature and relative humidity).

The wind chill factor measures the effect of wind speed on cooling of the human body below 10 C. As airflow increases over the skin, more heat will be removed. Standard models and conditions are used.

Comparison of NWS heat index values (circles) with the formula approximation (curves). In [ the SVG file,] hover over a graph to highlight it.

Heat index

Index that combines air temperature and relative humidity, in shaded areas, to posit a human-perceived equivalent temperature, as how hot it would feel if the humidity were some other value in the shade.

Index that combines air temperature and relative humidity, in shaded areas, to posit a human-perceived equivalent temperature, as how hot it would feel if the humidity were some other value in the shade.

Comparison of NWS heat index values (circles) with the formula approximation (curves). In [ the SVG file,] hover over a graph to highlight it.

Like the wind chill index, the heat index contains assumptions about the human body mass and height, clothing, amount of physical activity, individual heat tolerance, sunlight and ultraviolet radiation exposure, and the wind speed.

Rankin Inlet

Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada.

Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada.

A Thule site at the Meliadine River near Rankin Inlet

Wind speed was 74 km/h or above, with gusts to 90 km/h, and wind chill values were as low as −58 C. This blizzard lasted 7 days 5 hours.

Parhelion (sundog) in Savoie

Meteorology

Branch of the atmospheric sciences , with a major focus on weather forecasting.

Branch of the atmospheric sciences , with a major focus on weather forecasting.

Parhelion (sundog) in Savoie
Twilight at Baker Beach
A hemispherical cup anemometer
General circulation of the Earth's atmosphere: The westerlies and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric circulation.
Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence
This "Hyetographic or Rain Map of the World " was first published 1848 by Alexander Keith Johnston.
This "Hyetographic or Rain Map of Europe" was also published in 1848 as part of "The Physical Atlas".
A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. c. 1965
Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image
NOAA: Synoptic scale weather analysis.
Annual mean sea surface temperatures.
Forecast of surface pressures five days into the future for the north Pacific, North America, and north Atlantic Ocean

Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow, and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead and survive them.

Ottawa

Capital city of Canada.

Capital city of Canada.

Camp used by soldiers and labourers of the Rideau Canal, on the south side of the Ottawa River in 1826. The building of the canal attracted many land speculators to the area.
View of Ottawa in 1859, before the start of construction on Parliament Hill. Two years prior, Queen Victoria selected the city as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada.
LeBreton Flats after the 1900 Hull–Ottawa fire. The fire destroyed one-fifth of Ottawa and two-thirds of neighbouring Hull, Quebec.
Greber plan's National Capital Greenbelt surrounding the urban core
The John G. Diefenbaker Building was Ottawa's fourth city hall. Opened in 1958, it was the seat of local government until the City Council moved to its present location in 2001.
Downtown Ottawa is situated on the south bank of the Ottawa River. Gatineau may be seen in the background, across the river.
Skating on the Rideau Canal. Snow and ice are common for the region during the winter.
Map of Ottawa showing urban areas and names of historical communities
Distribution map from the 2001 census showcasing the percentage of individuals whose mother tongue is French
Developed in the early 1950s, Tunney's Pasture is an area that holds several federal government buildings. The federal government is the city's largest employer.
Kanata Research Park is home to many companies, mostly in high-tech industries.
The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) is a major children's and teaching hospital. The health sector is another major employer in Ottawa.
ByWard Market has been a focal point for culture in Ottawa.
People on ice slides during Winterlude, an annual winter festival held in Ottawa
Completed in 1913, the Connaught Building was constructed in a Gothic Revival style. In the following decades, new government buildings abandoned the style in favour of formalism and functionalism.
The Canadian Museum of Nature is a natural history and natural science museum. The institution is one of several national museums in Ottawa.
National Gallery of Canada
The National War Memorial and Château Laurier are both designated as National Historic Sites of Canada.
TD Place Stadium is an outdoor stadium that is home to the CFL's Ottawa Redblacks and the CPL's Atlético Ottawa.
Ottawa City Hall houses the seat of the local government.
Map of Intercity Transport Hubs in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
An O-Train crossing the Rideau River. The O-Train is a light rail public transportation service provided by OC Transpo.
The Capital Pathway is a multi-use trail interlinking many parks, waterways, and sites throughout the National Capital Region.
Established in 1848, the University of Ottawa is the oldest post-secondary institution in the city.
La Cité collégiale is the largest French-language college in Ontario.

An average 16 days of the three winter months experience temperatures below -20 C, or 41 days if the wind chill is considered.

A view of the lake near the boat rentals

Nockamixon State Park

Pennsylvania state park on 5283 acre in Bedminster and Haycock Townships in northern Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

Pennsylvania state park on 5283 acre in Bedminster and Haycock Townships in northern Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

A view of the lake near the boat rentals
Tohickon Creek flowing out the dam forming Lake Nockamixon

Episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values < -14 °F.

Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina

Southernmost, smallest, and least populous Argentine province.

Southernmost, smallest, and least populous Argentine province.

The Province of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur including all its external territorial claims
Period impression of navigating along Tierra del Fuego, 1833.
A member of the Selknam people, 1904. The Selk'nam, or Ona, who traditionally placed great value on amiability, were the island's most numerous native people until their numbers were reduced by disease and genocide in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Local sheep ranch, 1942.
Sheep, the most important part of the economy by the turn of the 20th century, have been eclipsed by the decline in the global wool market and the rise in petroleum extraction.
Mossy landscape, Tierra del Fuego.
Köppen climate map of Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina (without Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur)
Cerro Castor is the most important ski resort in the province.
"Train to the End of the World". Operated by the provincial government, is the world's southernmost active railway.
Governor's offices, Ushuaia.
Governor Gustavo Melella
The Les Eclaireurs Lighthouse, on the Beagle Channel near Ushuaia.

Mean annual temperatures are low, with winter temperatures averaging close to 0 C and summer temperatures averaging around 10 C. The strong westerly winds from the Pacific Ocean decrease the perception of the temperature (wind chill).

Tug Hill

Upland region in northern New York State, famous for heavy winter snows.

Upland region in northern New York State, famous for heavy winter snows.

Average seasonal snowfall totals for areas impacted by lake-effect snow in New York (in inches). The Tug Hill region, in the northeastern section of the map, receives the greatest average snowfall totals within New York State.

Episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values < -45 °F.

2004–05 NFL playoffs

The National Football League playoffs for the 2004 season began on January 8, 2005.

The National Football League playoffs for the 2004 season began on January 8, 2005.

Despite a game-time temperature of 17 °F and a swirling wind that sent wind chills into sub-zero temperatures, the Eagles finally succeeded in advancing to the Super Bowl in their fourth straight NFC Championship Game appearance.