Windows 8

8Windows 8.18 – 64 bit8, 8.1next releaseWindowsWindows 8 (32/64bit)Windows 8 Consumer PreviewWindows 8(.1)Windows 8/8.1
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.wikipedia
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Microsoft Store (digital)

Microsoft StoreWindows StoreApp Store
In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software.
It started as an app store for Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 as the primary means of distributing Universal Windows Platform (UWP) apps.

Windows 10

10WindowsCreators Update
Windows 8 was ultimately succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015.
One of Windows 10's most notable features is support for universal apps, an expansion of the Metro-style apps first introduced in Windows 8.

Windows 8.1

8.1/8.1Windows 8.1 Pro
On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1.
Windows 8.1 was made available as a free upgrade for retail copies of Windows 8 and Windows RT users via the Windows Store.

Metro (design language)

MetroMetro design languageMetro-style
In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software.
It has since been incorporated into several of the company's other products, including the Xbox 360 system software, Xbox One, Windows 8, Windows Phone, and Outlook.com.

Microsoft Silverlight

SilverlightMicrosoft Silverlight 2.0Microsoft Silverlight runtime for IE
Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.
Internally, even proponents of the technology thought Extensible Application Markup Language as a concept was a bad idea from the start, and Microsoft deprecated Silverlight for HTML5 in Windows 8.

Windows shell

shellthe charmsCharms
In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software.
Start button: Provides access to the Start menu. Removed in Windows 8(but can be added using third-party software), in favor of the Start charm (see below), only to be reinstated in Windows 8.1. Pictured as a Windows logo.

Adobe Flash Player

FlashFlash PlayerAdobe Flash
Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated version of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer.
Google Chrome, Internet Explorer 11 in Windows 8 and later, and Microsoft Edge come bundled with a sandboxed Adobe Flash plug-in.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
In response, Microsoft built its Windows 8 operating system to better accommodate these new touch-oriented devices.

Features new to Windows 8

Storage SpacesFile HistoryEarly Launch Anti-Malware
A new "File History" function allows incremental revisions of files to be backed up to and restored from a secondary storage device, while Storage Spaces allows users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis.
The transition from Windows 7 to Windows 8 introduced a number of new features across various aspects of the operating system.

Windows Phone

WPWindowsWindows Phone 7
Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.
Windows Phone 8 replaces its previously Windows CE-based architecture with one based on the Windows NT kernel with many components shared with Windows 8, allowing applications to be ported between the two platforms.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Microsoft unveiled Windows 8, an operating system designed to power both personal computers and tablet computers, in Taipei in June 2011.

Build (developer conference)

BuildBuild conferenceBuild 2014
Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011.
The conference heavily focused on Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 and Visual Studio 2012; their Developer Preview versions were also released during the conference.

Surface (2012 tablet)

Surfaceoriginal SurfaceMicrosoft Surface
Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.
Surface served as the launch device for Windows RT, a variation of Windows 8 that was designed for devices based on ARM architecture.

Windows Phone 8

Windows Phone8Windows
On June 12, 2013 during game 1 of the 2013 Stanley Cup Finals, Microsoft premiered the first ad in its "Windows Everywhere" campaign, which promoted Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, and the company's suite of online services as an interconnected platform.
Windows Phone 8 replaces the Windows CE-based architecture used in Windows Phone 7 with the Windows NT kernel found in Windows 8.

Microsoft Security Essentials

MS Security EssentialsSecurity EssentialsSecurity Essentials 2010
New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords), the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).
Prior to version 4.5, MSE ran on Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, but not on Windows 8 and later, which have built-in AV components known as Windows Defender.

Microsoft SmartScreen

Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreen phishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.
SmartScreen (officially called Windows SmartScreen, Windows Defender SmartScreen and SmartScreen Filter in different places) is a cloud-based anti-phishing and anti-malware component included in several Microsoft products, including Windows 8 and later, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge and Outlook.com.

Intel

Intel CorporationIntel Corp. Intel Corporation
At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel.
This was after poor sales of Windows 8 hardware caused a major retrenchment for most of the major semiconductor manufacturers, except for Qualcomm, which continued to see healthy purchases from its largest customer, Apple.

Blue Screen of Death

BSoDblue screenblue screen error
The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new black screen, although this was later scrapped.
Until Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012, BSoDs showed silver text on a royal blue background with information about current memory values and register values.

Steve Ballmer

BallmerMicrosoft CEO Steve BallmerSteven A. Ballmer
Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise."
This diversified product mix helped to offset the company's reliance on PCs and mobile computing devices as the company entered the Post-PC era; in reporting quarterly results during April 2013, while Windows Phone 8 and Windows 8 had not managed to increase their market share above single digits, the company increased its profit 19% over the previous quarter in 2012, as the Microsoft Business Division (including Office 365) and Server and Tools division (cloud services) are each larger than the Windows division.

Internet Explorer 10

IE1010.010
Internet Explorer 10 is included as both a desktop program and a touch-optimized app, and includes increased support for HTML5, CSS3, and hardware acceleration.
Internet Explorer 10 (IE10) is the tenth version of the Internet Explorer web browser released by Microsoft in 2012, and is the default browser in Windows 8.

Windows Defender

GIANT AntiSpywareMicrosoft AntiSpywareDefender
New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords), the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).
It has evolved into a full antivirus program, replacing Microsoft Security Essentials as part of Windows 8 and later versions.

Windows NT

NTMicrosoft Windows NTWinNT
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
This eventually led to the commercial release of the Windows 8-derived Windows RT on October 26, 2012, and the implementation of NT over CE on Windows Phone 8.

Advanced Format

4 KB sector alignment4,096-byte sectors4-KB sector boundaries
Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, and cloud computing.
Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 also support 4Kn Advanced Format.

Windows Runtime

WinRTappsWindows 8 app
Windows Store apps run within a new set of APIs known as Windows Runtime, which supports programming languages such as C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, C#, along with HTML5 and JavaScript.
Windows Runtime (WinRT) is a platform-agnostic application architecture first introduced in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 in 2012.

Ribbon (computing)

ribbonribbonsRibbon interface
This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer.
On Windows 8, File Explorer followed suit.