Windows NT

Original Windows NT wordmark
Windows 2000 architecture

Proprietary graphical operating system produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993.

- Windows NT

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Screenshot of Windows NT 3.1

Windows NT 3.1

Screenshot of Windows NT 3.1
Screenshot of Windows NT 3.1
Graphical view of the architecture of Windows NT 3.1. Shown are the following components of the operating system core: I/O Manager, Object Manager, Security Reference Monitor, Process Manager, Local Procedure Call Facility, Virtual Memory Manager.

Windows NT 3.1 is the first major release of the Windows NT operating system developed by Microsoft, released on July 27, 1993.

Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series

Windows 9x

Generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.

Generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.

Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series
Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series
Windows 95 logo
Windows 98 logo
Windows Millennium Edition (Me)

Windows NT, which was aimed at professional users such as networks and businesses, used a similar but separate version number between 3.1 and 4.0.

"Alpha Generation" logo used by Digital

DEC Alpha

64-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).

64-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).

"Alpha Generation" logo used by Digital

Operating systems that support Alpha included OpenVMS (formerly named OpenVMS AXP), Tru64 UNIX (formerly named DEC OSF/1 AXP and Digital UNIX), Windows NT (discontinued after NT 4.0; and prerelease Windows 2000 RC2), Linux (Debian, SUSE, Gentoo and Red Hat), BSD UNIX (NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD up to 6.x), Plan 9 from Bell Labs, and the L4Ka::Pistachio kernel.

Fig. 1: NTFS file system permissions on a modern Windows system

NTFS

Proprietary journaling file system developed by Microsoft.

Proprietary journaling file system developed by Microsoft.

Fig. 1: NTFS file system permissions on a modern Windows system
A sparse file: Empty bytes don't need to be saved, thus they can be represented by metadata.

Starting with Windows NT 3.1, it is the default file system of the Windows NT family.

OS/2 Warp 4 desktop. This version was released on 25 September 1996.

OS/2

Series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.

Series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.

OS/2 Warp 4 desktop. This version was released on 25 September 1996.
OS/2 Warp 4 desktop. This version was released on 25 September 1996.
OS/2 1.0 featured a text-mode interface similar to MS-DOS.
OS/2 1.1 was the first version to feature the Presentation Manager GUI.
Installation Disk A of Microsoft OS/2 1.3 (3½-inch floppy disk)
OS/2 1.3 was the final 16-bit only version of OS/2, and the last to be sold by Microsoft.
OS/2 2.0 was the first 32-bit release of OS/2, and the first to feature the Workplace Shell.
The OS/2 2.0 upgrade box
OS/2 Warp Connect 3.0, showing the Windows 3.1 Program Manager, QBASIC in a DOS window, and the LaunchPad (bottom center)
Firefox 3.5.4 for OS/2 Warp 4
OS/2 Warp 4 desktop after installation
ArcaOS is the most recent OS/2-based operating system developed outside of IBM.
OS/2 Window (cmd.exe) on Microsoft OS/2 Version 1.3
An ATM in Australia revealing during a reboot that it is based on OS/2 Warp

Because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows NT.

Windows Update on Windows 10

Windows Update

Windows Update on Windows 10
Windows Update on Windows 10
The Windows Update web app, version 4, in Windows Me
Screenshot of the Critical Update Notification dialog box in Windows 98.
Automatic Updates "Restart Required" dialog box in Windows XP Service Pack 1
Revised restart dialog box in Windows Vista
The Microsoft Update website in Internet Explorer 6 on Windows XP

Windows Update is a Microsoft service for the Windows 9x and Windows NT families of operating system, which automates downloading and installing Microsoft Windows software updates over the Internet.

Local Security Policy editor in Windows 7

Group Policy

Local Security Policy editor in Windows 7

Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (including Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows 11, and Windows Server 2003+) that controls the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts.

Interactive Multiuser Multitouch

Multi-user software

Computer software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.

Computer software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.

Interactive Multiuser Multitouch

Some multi-user operating systems such as Windows versions from the Windows NT family support simultaneous access by multiple users (for example, via Remote Desktop Connection) as well as the ability for a user to disconnect from a local session while leaving processes running (doing work on their behalf) while another user logs into and uses the system.

While most aspects of computer security involve digital measures such as electronic passwords and encryption, physical security measures such as metal locks are still used to prevent unauthorized tampering.

Access-control list

Access-control list is a list of permissions associated with a system resource (object).

Access-control list is a list of permissions associated with a system resource (object).

While most aspects of computer security involve digital measures such as electronic passwords and encryption, physical security measures such as metal locks are still used to prevent unauthorized tampering.

These entries are known as access-control entries (ACEs) in the Microsoft Windows NT, OpenVMS, and Unix-like operating systems such as Linux, macOS, and Solaris.

Hyper-V

Native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.

Native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.

Hyper-V architecture

Starting with Windows 8, Hyper-V superseded Windows Virtual PC as the hardware virtualization component of the client editions of Windows NT.