wine makingwine productionvinificationwine-makingwine growerwinemakervinifiedpigeagevigneronswine
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.wikipedia
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A winemaker may also be called a vintner.
In the case of grapes or must, the négociant performs virtually all the winemaking.


The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology.
Oenology (enology; ) is the science and study of wine and winemaking; distinct from viticulture, the agricultural endeavours of vine-growing and of grape-harvesting.

Sparkling wine production

méthode champenoiseChampagne productionmethode champenoise
Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production (without carbonation) and sparkling wine production (with carbonation — natural or injected).
Sparkling wine production is the method of winemaking used to produce sparkling wine.

White wine

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Red wine, white wine, and rosé are the other main categories.
The wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, and ratios of residual sugar.

History of wine

winehistoryancient wine
The history of wine-making stretches over millennia.
Wine production and consumption increased, burgeoning from the 15th century onwards as part of European expansion.


rosé winerosesaignée
Red wine, white wine, and rosé are the other main categories.
The pink color can range from a pale "onion-skin" orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the grape varieties used and winemaking techniques.

Fermentation in winemaking

After the harvest, the grapes are taken into a winery and prepared for primary ferment.
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.

Pressing (wine)

pressedpressingwine pressing
After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine.
Pressing in winemaking is the process where the juice is extracted from the grapes with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or even by the weight of the grape berries and clusters.

Sugars in wine

sugarssugarsugar levels
The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Sugars in wine are at the heart of what makes winemaking possible.

Red wine

redred winesWine
Red wine, white wine, and rosé are the other main categories.
In common with most modern winemaking equipment, destemmers and crushers are normally made of stainless steel (food-grade stainless steel for those parts which come into physical contact with the grapes).

Acids in wine

acidityacidacidity levels
The decision to harvest grapes is typically made by the winemaker and informed by the level of sugar (called °Brix), acid (TA or Titratable Acidity as expressed by tartaric acid equivalents) and pH of the grapes.
The acids in wine are an important component in both winemaking and the finished product of wine.


vineyardswine estatevineries
Grapes are usually harvested from the vineyard from early September until early November in the northern hemisphere, and mid February until early March in the southern hemisphere.
A vineyard (, also ) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.

Sparkling wine

sparklingfrizzantesparkling wines
With sparkling wines such as Champagne, an additional, "secondary" fermentation takes place inside the bottle, dissolving trapped carbon dioxide in the wine and creating the characteristic bubbles.
The viticultural and winemaking practices of making sparkling wine have many similarities to the production of still wine with some noted divergence.

Tartaric acid

The decision to harvest grapes is typically made by the winemaker and informed by the level of sugar (called °Brix), acid (TA or Titratable Acidity as expressed by tartaric acid equivalents) and pH of the grapes.
Its salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, develops naturally in the process of winemaking.

Carbonic maceration

In some cases, notably with "delicate" red varietals such as Pinot noir or Syrah, all or part of the grapes might be left uncrushed (called "whole berry") to encourage the retention of fruity aromas through partial carbonic maceration.
Carbonic maceration is a winemaking technique, often associated with the French wine region of Beaujolais, in which whole grapes are fermented in a carbon dioxide rich environment prior to crushing.

Maceration (wine)

macerationskin contactmacerated
Red wines are produced by destemming and crushing the grapes into a tank and leaving the skins in contact with the juice throughout the fermentation (maceration).
Maceration is the winemaking process where the phenolic materials of the grape—tannins, coloring agents (anthocyanins) and flavor compounds—are leached from the grape skins, seeds and stems into the must.


yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
During this fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide.
Yeast is used in winemaking, where it converts the sugars present (glucose and fructose) in grape juice (must) into ethanol.

Malolactic fermentation

malolacticmalolactic conversionnon-malolactic
During or after the alcoholic fermentation, a secondary, or malolactic fermentation can also take place, during which specific strains of bacteria (lactobacter) convert malic acid into the milder lactic acid.
Malolactic fermentation (also known as malolactic conversion or MLF) is a process in winemaking in which tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid.

Wine fraud

Synthetic wines, engineered wines or fake wines, are a product that do not use grapes at all and start with water and ethanol and then adds acids, amino acids, sugars, and organic compounds.
Over the years, winemaking techniques have evolved.

Yeast in winemaking

yeastwine yeastwild yeast
Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes.
The most common yeast associated with winemaking is Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has been favored due to its predictable and vigorous fermentation capabilities, tolerance of relatively high levels of alcohol and sulfur dioxide as well as its ability to thrive in normal wine pH between 2.8 and 4.


marcgrape marcpomace wine
The process produces wastewater, pomace, and lees that require collection, treatment, and disposal or beneficial use.
Pomace in winemaking differs, depending upon whether white wine or red wine is being produced.


terroirsplantation areasterrior
The combination of these effects is often referred to as the grape's terroir.
Many decisions during the growing and winemaking process can either lessen or increase the expression of terroir in the wine.

Aging of wine

agingagedaging potential
During the secondary fermentation and aging process, which takes three to six months, the fermentation continues very slowly.
The ability of a wine to age is influenced by many factors including grape variety, vintage, viticultural practices, wine region and winemaking style.

Grape treading

grape stompingGrape Stompstomping grapes
Pigeage is a French winemaking term for the traditional grape treading in open fermentation tanks.
Grape-treading or grape-stomping (also known as pigeage ) is part of the method of maceration used in traditional wine-making.

Fermentation lock

The wine is kept under an airlock to protect the wine from oxidation.
A fermentation lock or airlock is a device used in beer brewing and wine making that allows carbon dioxide released during fermentation to escape the fermenter, while not allowing air to enter the fermenter, thus avoiding oxidation.