Wing

wingsaircraft wingWing areawingedAir Wingmainplanesaerodynamic deviceaerodynamic surfacesaerodynamic wingairplane wing
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.wikipedia
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Airfoil

aerofoilairfoilslaminar flow airfoil
As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoils.
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the cross-sectional shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).

Lift (force)

liftaerodynamic liftlift force
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
Lift is mostly associated with the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, although it is more widely generated by many other streamlined bodies such as propellers, kites, helicopter rotors, racing car wings, maritime sails, and wind turbines in air, and by sailboat keels, ship's rudders, and hydrofoils in water.

Lift-to-drag ratio

glide ratiolift to drag ratiolift/drag ratio
A wing's aerodynamic efficiency is expressed as its lift-to-drag ratio.
In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air.

Hydrofoil

hydrofoilsfinsfoil
Lifting structures used in water, include various foils, including hydrofoils.
The hydrofoil usually consists of a wing like structure mounted on struts below the hull, or across the keels of a catamaran in a variety of boats (see illustration).

Aerodynamic force

aerodynamicaerodynamic lift and dragaerodynamic forces
As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoils.
When an airfoil (or a wing) is moving relative to the air it generates an aerodynamic force, in a rearward direction at an angle with the direction of relative motion.

Drag (physics)

dragaerodynamic dragair resistance
The lift a wing generates at a given speed and angle of attack can be one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total drag on the wing.
Further, lift-induced drag is only relevant when wings or a lifting body are present, and is therefore usually discussed either in aviation or in the design of semi-planing or planing hulls.

Bird

birdsAvesavian
The word "wing" from the Old Norse vængr for many centuries referred mainly to the foremost limbs of birds (in addition to the architectural aisle). In nature, wings have evolved in insects, pterosaurs, dinosaurs (birds), and mammals (bats) as a means of locomotion.
Jacques Gauthier, who named Avialae in 1986, re-defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that possessed feathered wings used in flapping flight, and the birds that descended from them.

Wingsail

wing sailwing-sailrigid vertical wing
But in recent centuries the word's meaning has extended to include lift producing appendages of insects, bats, pterosaurs, boomerangs, some sail boats and aircraft, or the inverted airfoil on a race car that generates a downward force to increase traction.
Wingsails are analogous to airplane wings, except that they are designed to provide lift on either side to accommodate being on either tack.

Aircraft

heavier-than-airheavier-than-air flightheavier-than-air aircraft
But in recent centuries the word's meaning has extended to include lift producing appendages of insects, bats, pterosaurs, boomerangs, some sail boats and aircraft, or the inverted airfoil on a race car that generates a downward force to increase traction.
Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, and rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings.

Wing configuration

planformhigh winglow wing
Wings may have other minor independent surfaces.
Aircraft designs are often classified by their wing configuration.

Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines

streamlinestreamlinedstreamlines
As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as airfoils.
For instance, the streamlines in the air around an aircraft wing are defined differently for the passengers in the aircraft than for an observer on the ground.

Leading-edge slat

slatsleading edge slatsleading edge slat
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack.

Trailing edge

trailing edgestrailing-edgewing trailing edges
The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge rejoins.

Flap (aeronautics)

flapsflapFowler flaps
Flaps are a kind of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed.

Aileron

aileronsFrise aileronsdifferential ailerons
An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.

Wing fence

fencesstall fencewing fences
Wing fences, also known as boundary layer fences and potential fences are fixed aerodynamic devices attached to aircraft wings.

Propeller (aeronautics)

propellerpropellersfeathered
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).
While some earlier engineers had attempted to model air propellers on marine propellers, the Wright Brothers realized that a propeller is essentially the same as a wing, and were able to use data from their earlier wind tunnel experiments on wings, introducing a twist along the length of the blades.

Variable-sweep wing

swing-wingvariable fightervariable-geometry wing
A variable-sweep wing, colloquially known as a "swing wing", is an airplane wing, or set of wings, that may be swept back and then returned to its original straight position during flight.

Fixed-wing aircraft

fixed-wingaircraftfixed wing
A fixed-wing aircraft is a flying machine, such as an airplane or aeroplane (see spelling differences), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

Hang gliding

hang gliderhang glidershang-gliding
Most modern hang gliders are made of an aluminium alloy or composite frame covered with synthetic sailcloth to form a wing.

Propeller

screwscrew propellerscrews
Propeller dynamics, like those of aircraft wings, can be modelled by Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law.

Bat

batsChiropterachiropteran
But in recent centuries the word's meaning has extended to include lift producing appendages of insects, bats, pterosaurs, boomerangs, some sail boats and aircraft, or the inverted airfoil on a race car that generates a downward force to increase traction. In nature, wings have evolved in insects, pterosaurs, dinosaurs (birds), and mammals (bats) as a means of locomotion.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

Foil (fluid mechanics)

foilfoilsunderwater foils
Lifting structures used in water, include various foils, including hydrofoils.

Animal locomotion

locomotionlocomotor activitylocomotor
In nature, wings have evolved in insects, pterosaurs, dinosaurs (birds), and mammals (bats) as a means of locomotion.
The anatomical structures that animals use for movement, including cilia, legs, wings, arms, fins, or tails are sometimes referred to as locomotory organs or locomotory structures.