Wireless

A handheld on-board communication station of the maritime mobile service
Bell and Tainter's photophone, of 1880.
Marconi transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic.
Power MOSFETs, which are used in RF power amplifiers to boost radio frequency (RF) signals in long-distance wireless networks.
An 8-beam free space optics laser link, rated for 1 Gbit/s at a distance of approximately 2 km. The receptor is the large disc in the middle, the transmitters the smaller ones. To the top and right corner a monocular for assisting the alignment of the two heads.

Transfer of information between two or more points without the use of an electrical conductor, optical fiber or other continuous guided medium for the transfer.

- Wireless
A handheld on-board communication station of the maritime mobile service

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Headphones on a stand

Headphones

Headphones are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.

Headphones are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.

Headphones on a stand
Wireless headphones
Bone conduction headphones.
Brandes radio headphones, circa 1920
Sennheiser HD 555 headphones, used in audio production environments (2007)
Headphone cord with integrated potentiometer for volume regulation
Circumaural headphones have large pads that surround the outer ear.
A pair of supra-aural (on-ear) headphones
In-ear monitors extend into the ear canal, providing isolation from outside noise.
A typical example of a headset used for voice chats
Sony Ericsson Cordless bluetooth headset
Lightspeed Aviation 30 3G ANR Aviation headset used by aviators
In-ears are among those good for noise isolation.
A typical moving-coil headphone transducer
Electrostatic loudspeaker diagram
Balanced armature transducer with armature balanced and exerting no force on diaphragm
A custom in-ear monitor which uses 8 balanced armatures in a triple crossover configuration (4 low/2 mid/2 high). Headphone designs often use multiple balanced armatures to provide a higher fidelity sound.
Sony MDR-7506 headphones in stowed configuration
Product testing - headphones in an anechoic chamber

Headphones connect to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio, CD player, portable media player, mobile phone, video game console, or electronic musical instrument, either directly using a cord, or using wireless technology such as Bluetooth, DECT or FM radio.

Bluetooth

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Ericsson Bluetooth module PBA 313 01/2S R2A manufactured in week 22, 2001.
A typical Bluetooth mobile phone headset
A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range
A typical Bluetooth USB dongle
An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4mm)
Bluetooth Protocol Stack

Bluetooth is a short-range wireless technology standard that is used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using UHF radio waves in the ISM bands, from 2.402GHz to 2.48GHz, and building personal area networks (PANs).

Top of a cellular radio tower

Cellular network

Top of a cellular radio tower
Indoor cell site in Germany
Example of frequency reuse factor or pattern 1/4
Cellular telephone frequency reuse pattern. See
WCDMA network architecture
Cellular network standards and generation timeline.

A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the link to and from end nodes is wireless.

A typical call center/office headset.

Headset (audio)

Headsets connect over a telephone or to a computer, allowing the user to speak and listen while keeping both hands free.

Headsets connect over a telephone or to a computer, allowing the user to speak and listen while keeping both hands free.

A typical call center/office headset.
2.5mm jack
RJ-9 connector
A typical Quick Disconnect bottom cable
Standard handset lifter
A typical gaming headset, with gaming-oriented graphics and a microphone attached. The microphone is on the left earcup. With standard 3.5 mm TRS connectors
Mobile phone or smartphone headsets may include a volume control, microphone and 3.5mm plug.
JPL Trusted Telecom X400 DECT
A typical Bluetooth headset.

In 2019, wireless headsets were a new trend for business and consumer communications.

Two decades of evolution of mobile phones, from a 1992 Motorola 8900X-2 to the 2014 iPhone 6 Plus

Mobile phone

Portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

Portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

Two decades of evolution of mobile phones, from a 1992 Motorola 8900X-2 to the 2014 iPhone 6 Plus
Martin Cooper of Motorola, shown here in a 2007 reenactment, made the first publicized handheld mobile phone call on a prototype DynaTAC model on 3 April 1973.
The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. In 1983, it became the first commercially available handheld cellular mobile phone.
Dupuis and Haug during a GSM meeting in Belgium, April 1992
Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems, 1997–2003
Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.
Cellular networks work by only reusing radio frequencies (in this example frequencies f1-f4) in non adjacent cells to avoid interference
Typical mobile phone mini-SIM card
Android smartphones
A text message (SMS)
Growth in mobile phone subscribers per country from 1980 to 2009
Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants. 2014 figure is estimated.
Mobile payment system
A driver using two handheld mobile phones at once
A sign in the U.S. restricting cell phone use to certain times of day (no cell phone use between 7:30am-9:00am and 2:00pm-4:15pm)
Scrapped mobile phones

Digital cellular networks appeared in the 1990s, enabled by the wide adoption of MOSFET-based RF power amplifiers (power MOSFET and LDMOS) and RF circuits (RF CMOS), leading to the introduction of digital signal processing in wireless communications.

An air conditioning unit remote control

Remote control

An air conditioning unit remote control
A Samsung Nuon N2000 remote control
The standard symbol used to denote that it uses infrared as a way to send the signal to devices
Philco Mystery Control (1939)
1950s TV Remote by Motorola
SABA corded TV remote
The Zenith Space Commander Six hundred remote control
An RCA universal remote
TV, VHS and DVD Remote controls
Used remote controls for sale in a market in Hong Kong.
The emission spectrum of a typical sound system remote control is in the near infrared.
The infrared diode modulates at a speed corresponding to a particular function. When seen through a digital camera, the diode appears to be emitting pulses of purple light.
The exterior and interior layout of the remote control for a garage door opener
The Brennan torpedo, one of the earliest "guided missiles".
Remote controlled free-flying television camera AERCam Sprint
Wii Remote.

In electronics, a remote control (also known as a remote or clicker ) is an electronic device used to operate another device from a distance, usually wirelessly.

Mobile phone tower

Mobile telephony

Provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.

Provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.

Mobile phone tower
Mobile telephone antennas tower
Booth presenting the first Dutch vehicle or watercraft telephone ("Mobilofoon"), a collaboration of the Royal Dutch Automobile Club (KNAC), and the Dutch Postal, Telegraph and Telephone (PTT) at 1948 Amsterdam International Autoshow (AutoRAI).
Use of an early mobile phone in Austria, 1964
Mobile phone subscriptions, not subscribers, per 100 inhabitants 1997-2007
Mr Dupuis and Mr Haug during a GSM meeting in Belgium, April 1992
This Railfone found on some Amtrak trains in North America uses cellular technology.
Cellular phones allow people to communicate from almost anywhere at their leisure.
Cellular antenna disguised to look like a tree
Mobile phone shop in Uganda

There was a rapid growth of wireless telecommunications towards the end of the 20th century, primarily due to the introduction of digital signal processing in wireless communications, driven by the development of low-cost, very large-scale integration (VLSI) RF CMOS (radio-frequency complementary MOS) technology.

Wi-Fi

Family of wireless network protocols, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used for local area networking of devices and Internet access, allowing nearby digital devices to exchange data by radio waves.

Family of wireless network protocols, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used for local area networking of devices and Internet access, allowing nearby digital devices to exchange data by radio waves.

A newly installed home Wi-Fi network in April 2022.
Wi-Fi certification logo
An example of a service set called "WiFi Wikipedia" consisting of two Basic Service Sets. They are able to automatically roam between the two BSSs, without the user having to explicitly connect to the second network.
An outdoor Wi-Fi access point
Generic 802.11 Frame
Depiction of a Wi-Fi network in infrastructure mode. The device sends information wirelessly to another device, both connected to the local network, to print a document.
Access points send out beacon frames to announce the presence of networks.
Network planning frequency allocations for North America and Europe. Using these types of frequency allocations can help minimize co-channel and adjacent-channel interference.
In the 2.4 GHz wavebands as well as others, transmitters straddle multiple channels. Overlapping channels can suffer from interference unless this is a small portion of the total received power.
An embedded RouterBoard 112 with U.FL-RSMA pigtail and R52 mini PCI Wi-Fi card widely used by wireless Internet service providers (WISPs) in the Czech Republic
OSBRiDGE 3GN – 802.11n Access Point and UMTS/GSM Gateway in one device
An AirPort wireless G Wi-Fi adapter from an Apple MacBook
Wireless network interface controller Gigabyte GC-WB867D-I
Embedded serial-to-Wi-Fi module
A QR code to automate a Wi-Fi connection using WIFI:S:Wikipedia; T:WPA;P:Password1!;;

The non-profit Wi-Fi Alliance was formed in 1999 to fill this void—to establish and enforce standards for interoperability and backward compatibility, and to promote wireless local-area-network technology.

An example of an amateur radio station with four transceivers, amplifiers, and a computer for logging and for digital modes. On the wall are examples of various amateur radio awards, certificates, and reception report cards (QSL cards) from foreign amateur stations.

Amateur radio

An example of an amateur radio station with four transceivers, amplifiers, and a computer for logging and for digital modes. On the wall are examples of various amateur radio awards, certificates, and reception report cards (QSL cards) from foreign amateur stations.
An amateur radio station in Wales. Multiple transceivers are employed for different bands and modes. Computers are used for control, datamodes, SDR, RTTY and logging.
A young Polish woman with radio antennas in Åland
NASA astronaut Col. Doug Wheelock, KF5BOC, Expedition 24 flight engineer, operates the NA1SS ham radio station in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. Equipment is a Kenwood TM-D700E transceiver.
The top of a tower supporting a Yagi–Uda antenna and several wire antennas, along with a Canadian flag
A handheld VHF/UHF transceiver
The international symbol for amateur radio, included in the logos of many IARU member societies. The diamond holds a circuit diagram featuring components common to every radio: an antenna, inductor and ground.

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communications.

A mobile broadband modem in the ExpressCard form factor for laptop computers

Mobile broadband

Marketing term for wireless Internet access via mobile networks.

Marketing term for wireless Internet access via mobile networks.

A mobile broadband modem in the ExpressCard form factor for laptop computers
HTC ThunderBolt, the second commercially available LTE smartphone
Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Service mark for GSMA mobile broadband

Edholm's law in 2004 noted that the bandwidths of wireless cellular networks have been increasing at a faster pace compared to wired telecommunications networks.