Women's rights

women’s rightswomenwomen's rights movementrights of womenwomen's rights activistwomen rightsequal rightswomen's emancipationequal rights for womenwoman's rights
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and which formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and feminist movement during the 20th century.wikipedia
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Women's suffrage

suffragistfemale suffragesuffrage movement
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include the right to bodily integrity and autonomy; to be free from sexual violence; to vote; to hold public office; to enter into legal contracts; to have equal rights in family law; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to have reproductive rights; to own property; to education. The ideals of women's suffrage developed alongside that of universal suffrage and today women's suffrage is considered a right (under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women).
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections.

Girl

Girlsgirliecolleen
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and which formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
The treatment and status of girls in any society is usually closely related to the status of women in that culture.

Reproductive rights

reproductive freedomreproductiveProcreative liberty
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include the right to bodily integrity and autonomy; to be free from sexual violence; to vote; to hold public office; to enter into legal contracts; to have equal rights in family law; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to have reproductive rights; to own property; to education.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) advocate for reproductive rights with a primary emphasis on women's rights.

Rights

rightRights Ethicspolitical rights
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and which formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Some examples of groups whose rights are of particular concern include animals, and amongst humans, groups such as children and youth, parents (both mothers and fathers), and men and women.

Hypatia

Hypatia of AlexandriaGreek astronomerIpazia
The woman who achieved the greatest prominence in the ancient world for her learning was Hypatia of Alexandria, who taught advanced courses to young men and advised the Roman prefect of Egypt on politics.
In the twentieth century, Hypatia became seen as an icon for women's rights and a precursor to the feminist movement.

Human rights

human righthuman rights violationshuman rights abuses
They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys.
The women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote.

Agnes Smedley

Smedley, Agnes
The lives of Mui Tsai were recorded by American feminist Agnes Smedley in her book Portraits of Chinese Women in Revolution.
She also worked on behalf of various causes including women's rights, birth control, and children's welfare.

New Marriage Law

Marriage Law of 1950comprehensive reforms of the traditional Chinese laws of marriageMarriage Law
In May 1950 the People's Republic of China enacted the New Marriage Law to tackle the sale of women into slavery.
Women's rights were a personal interest of Mao Zedong (as indicated by his statement: "Women hold up half the sky"), and had been a concern of Chinese intellectuals since the New Culture Movement in the 1910s and 1920s.

Mary Wollstonecraft

WollstonecraftMary WollstonecroftWollstonecraftian
Mary Wollstonecraft, a British writer and philosopher, published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792, arguing that it was the education and upbringing of women that created limited expectations.
Mary Wollstonecraft (, also ; 27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.

Olympe de Gouges

Olympe de GougeOlimpia de GougesOlympe des Gouges
In 1791 the French playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, modelled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.
Olympe de Gouges (7 May 1748 – 3 November 1793), born Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose writings on women's rights and abolitionism reached a large audience in various countries.

Emily Murphy

Janey CanuckEmily Gowan Murphy née Ferguson
The Famous Five were five Canadian women – Emily Murphy, Irene Marryat Parlby, Nellie Mooney McClung, Louise Crummy McKinney and Henrietta Muir Edwards – who, in 1927, asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?"
Emily Murphy (born Emily Gowan Ferguson; 14 March 1868 – 27 October 1933) was a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author.

Women in the Arab world

Women in Arab societiesArab womenArab societies
The general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood.
During the early reforms under Islam in the 7th century, reforms in women's rights affected marriage, divorce and inheritance.

Activism

activistpolitical activistsocial activist
In 1791 the French playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, modelled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well, particularly over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, and the civil rights movement.

Early social changes under Islam

early reforms under Islamearly Muslim sociologysocial reformer
From 610 and 661, known as the early reforms under Islam, the Qur'an introduced fundamental reforms to customary law and introduced rights for women in marriage, divorce, and inheritance.
However, he states that Muhammad, in the historical context of his time, can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women's rights and improved things considerably.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Elizabeth StantonElizabeth C. StantonStanton
During the 19th century some women, such as Ernestine Rose, Paulina Wright Davis, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Harriet Beecher Stowe, in the United States and Britain began to challenge laws that denied them the right to their property once they married.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
In 1791 the French playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, modelled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.
The French Revolution did not lead to a recognition of women's rights, and this prompted de Gouges to publish the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in early 1791.

John Stuart Mill

MillJ.S. MillJ. S. Mill
In his 1869 essay "The Subjection of Women" the English philosopher and political theorist John Stuart Mill described the situation for women in Britain as follows:
His relationship with Harriet Taylor reinforced Mill's advocacy of women's rights.

Ernestine Rose

Ernestine L RoseErnestine Louise Potowski RoseErnestine Polowsky Rose
During the 19th century some women, such as Ernestine Rose, Paulina Wright Davis, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Harriet Beecher Stowe, in the United States and Britain began to challenge laws that denied them the right to their property once they married.
Largely forgotten in contemporary discussions of the American women's rights movement, she was one of its major intellectual forces in nineteenth-century America.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

CEDAWCommittee on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
The ideals of women's suffrage developed alongside that of universal suffrage and today women's suffrage is considered a right (under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women).
Article 1 defines discrimination against women in the following terms: Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.

Marie Stopes

Marie C. StopesMarie Charlotte Carmichael StopesM. C. Stopes
The British birth control campaigner Marie Stopes made contraception acceptable in Britain during the 1920s by framing it in scientific terms.
Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women's rights.

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
With the end of the First World War many other countries followed – the Netherlands (1917), Austria, Azerbaijan, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Georgia, Poland and Sweden (1918), Germany and Luxembourg (1919), Turkey (1934), and the United States (1920).
Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights, sexuality, disarmament and environmental issues.

Female infanticide

shortage of women
The general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood.
According to women's rights activist Donna Fernandes, some practices are so deeply embedded within Indian culture it is "almost impossible to do away with them", and she has said that India is undergoing a type of "female genocide".

Marital rape

spousal raperapemarital exemption
There are different views on where it is appropriate to differentiate between women and men, and one view is that the act of sexual intercourse is an act where this difference must be acknowledged, both due to the increased physical risks for the woman, and due to the historical context of women being systematically subjected to forced sexual intercourse while in a socially subordinated position (particularly within marriage and during war).
The importance of the right to self sexual determination of women is increasingly being recognized as crucial to women's rights.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Declaration of the Rights of ManDeclaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenDeclaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
In 1791 the French playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, modelled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.
The French Revolution did not lead to a recognition of women's rights and this prompted Olympe de Gouges to publish the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in September 1791.

Sex education

sexual educationsex educatorsexuality education
Reproductive rights may also be understood to include education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections.
Some international organizations such as Planned Parenthood consider that broad sex education programs have global benefits, such as controlling the risk of overpopulation and the advancement of women's rights (see also reproductive rights).