Word

wordsverballexicalword boundaryword boundarieslexical itemslexicallyorthographic wordsstemterm
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.wikipedia
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Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation.

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicmonomorphemic
This contrasts deeply with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of meaning but will not necessarily stand on its own.
A morpheme is not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding.

Root (linguistics)

rootrootsroot word
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).
The root word is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family (this root is then called the base word), which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents.

Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentence
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.

Dictionary

dictionariesonline dictionaryEnglish dictionaries
Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon (i.e., its vocabulary) into lemmas.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
The lexicon consists of words and bound morphemes, which are parts of words that can't stand alone, like affixes.

Lemma (morphology)

lemmacitation formdictionary form
Dictionaries categorize a language's lexicon (i.e., its vocabulary) into lemmas.
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).

Lexeme

lexemeslexicallexical root
This correlates phonemes (units of sound) to lexemes (units of meaning).
Put more technically, a lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of forms taken by a single word.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed). Spoken words are made up of units of sound called phonemes, and written words of symbols called graphemes, such as the letters of the English alphabet.
If they are free to be moved around within an utterance, they are usually called words, and if they are bound to other words or morphemes, they are called affixes.

Orthography

orthographicorthographiesorthographically
In languages with a literary tradition, there is interrelation between orthography and the question of what is considered a single word.
It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Compound (linguistics)

compoundcompound wordcompounds
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

Analytic language

analyticanalytic languagesanalytical
Mandarin Chinese is a very analytic language (with few inflectional affixes), making it unnecessary to delimit words orthographically.
Typically, analytic languages have a low morpheme-per-word ratio, especially with respect to inflectional morphemes.

Synthetic language

syntheticsyntheticallysynthesis
In synthetic languages, a single word stem (for example, love) may have a number of different forms (for example, loves, loving, and loved). However, for some purposes these are not usually considered to be different words, but rather different forms of the same word.
In synthetic languages, there is a higher morpheme-to-word ratio than in analytic languages.

Word stem

stemstemsverb stem
In synthetic languages, a single word stem (for example, love) may have a number of different forms (for example, loves, loving, and loved). However, for some purposes these are not usually considered to be different words, but rather different forms of the same word.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Grammar classifies a language's lexicon into several groups of words.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
The basic bipartite division possible for virtually every natural language is that of nouns vs. verbs. The classification into such classes is in the tradition of Dionysius Thrax, who distinguished eight categories: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, adverb, conjunction and interjection.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
The basic bipartite division possible for virtually every natural language is that of nouns vs. verbs. The classification into such classes is in the tradition of Dionysius Thrax, who distinguished eight categories: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, adverb, conjunction and interjection.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionssubordinating conjunction
The classification into such classes is in the tradition of Dionysius Thrax, who distinguished eight categories: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, preposition, adverb, conjunction and interjection.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
4) The neuter gender nominative or accusative singular suffix .
A classifier, or measure word, is a word or morpheme used in some languages together with a noun, principally to enable numbers and certain other determiners to be applied to the noun.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.

Affix

suffixaffixessuffixes
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
Spoken words are made up of units of sound called phonemes, and written words of symbols called graphemes, such as the letters of the English alphabet.