Word order

free word orderConstituent orderbasic word orderword-orderadjective-nounflexible word orderfollowfree-word-order languagesinvertedmuch freer
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages employ different orders.wikipedia
378 Related Articles

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Correlations between orders found in different syntactic sub-domains are also of interest. Many synthetic languages such as Latin, Greek, Persian, Romanian, Assyrian, Russian, Turkish, Korean, Japanese, Finnish, and Basque have no strict word order; rather, the sentence structure is highly flexible and reflects the pragmatics of the utterance.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.

Verb–subject–object

VSOverb-subject-objectVERB – SUBJECT – OBJECT
VSO is the third-most common word order among the world's languages, after SOV (as in Hindi and Japanese) and SVO (as in English and Mandarin).

Object–verb–subject

OVSobject-verb-subjectobject-initial language
In linguistic typology, object–verb–subject (OVS) or object–verb–agent (OVA) is a rare permutation of word order.

Verb–object–subject

VOSverb-object-subjectverb–object–subject (VOS)
VOS is the fourth-most common word order among the world’s languages, after SOV (as in Hindi and Japanese), SVO (as in English and Mandarin) and VSO (as in Filipino and Irish).

V2 word order

verb-secondV2verb-second word order
Sometimes patterns are more complex: some Germanic languages have SOV in subordinate clauses, but V2 word order in main clauses, SVO word order being the most common.
V2 word order is common in the Germanic languages and is also found in Northeast Caucasian Ingush, Uto-Aztecan O'odham, and fragmentarily in Rhaeto-Romansh Sursilvan.

Synthetic language

syntheticsyntheticallysynthesis
Many synthetic languages such as Latin, Greek, Persian, Romanian, Assyrian, Russian, Turkish, Korean, Japanese, Finnish, and Basque have no strict word order; rather, the sentence structure is highly flexible and reflects the pragmatics of the utterance.
Analytic languages have a lower morpheme-to-word ratio and higher use of helping verbs and word order.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

AssyrianAssyrian languageSuret
Many synthetic languages such as Latin, Greek, Persian, Romanian, Assyrian, Russian, Turkish, Korean, Japanese, Finnish, and Basque have no strict word order; rather, the sentence structure is highly flexible and reflects the pragmatics of the utterance.
Assyrian is a moderately-inflected, fusional language with a two-gender noun system and rather flexible word order.

Topic-prominent language

topic-prominentTopic-Commenttopic
Topic-prominent languages organize sentences to emphasize their topic–comment structure.
Topic–comment structure may be independent of the syntactic ordering of subject, verb and object.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation.

Ergative–absolutive language

ergativeergativityergative–absolutive
However, they are ergative–absolutive languages, and the more specific word order is intransitive VS, transitive VOA, where the S and O arguments both trigger the same type of agreement on the verb.
An ergative language maintains a syntactic or morphological equivalence (such as the same word order or grammatical case) for the object of a transitive verb and the single core argument of an intransitive verb, while treating the agent of a transitive verb differently.

Warao language

WaraoWarrauWaroid
It is notable for its unusual object–subject–verb word order.

Korean language

KoreanKorean-languageKorea
Many synthetic languages such as Latin, Greek, Persian, Romanian, Assyrian, Russian, Turkish, Korean, Japanese, Finnish, and Basque have no strict word order; rather, the sentence structure is highly flexible and reflects the pragmatics of the utterance.
The basic form of a Korean sentence is subject–object–verb, but the verb is the only required and immovable element and word order is highly flexible, as in many other agglutinative languages.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Many synthetic languages such as Latin, Greek, Persian, Romanian, Assyrian, Russian, Turkish, Korean, Japanese, Finnish, and Basque have no strict word order; rather, the sentence structure is highly flexible and reflects the pragmatics of the utterance. Most languages with a high degree of morphological marking have rather flexible word orders, such as Polish, Hungarian, Portuguese, Latin, Albanian, and O'odham.
Thus, word order is not as important in Latin as it is in English, which is less inflected.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Another method is to label the constituents in some way, for example with case marking, agreement, or another marker.
Languages having cases often exhibit free word order, as thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence.

Anastrophe

In English, this is called anastrophe.
Anastrophe (from the ἀναστροφή, anastrophē, "a turning back or about") is a figure of speech in which the normal word order of the subject, the verb, and the object is changed.

Insular Celtic languages

Insular CelticInsular Celtic languageCeltic
These similarities include verb–subject–object word order, singular verbs with plural post-verbal subjects, a genitive construction similar to construct state, prepositions with fused inflected pronouns ("conjugated prepositions"), and oblique relatives with pronoun copies.

Information flow

flow of informationestablished in the conversationflow

Grammatical modifier

modifiermodifiersqualifier
Within the noun phrase, one investigates whether the following modifiers occur before or after the head noun.
This type of situation is especially likely in languages with free word order.

Datooga language

DatoogaDatogTatoga
Also, some languages with free word order, such as some varieties of Datooga, combine free word order with a lack of morphological distinction between arguments.
Some varieties of Datooga have a verb-initial word order, but the relative order of subject and object reflects pragmatic concerns.

Malagasy language

MalagasyBetsimisarakamlg
Malagasy has a verb–object–subject (VOS) word order:

Hungarian language

HungarianMagyarHungarian-language
Most languages with a high degree of morphological marking have rather flexible word orders, such as Polish, Hungarian, Portuguese, Latin, Albanian, and O'odham.
However, Hungarian, a topic-prominent language, has a word order that depends not only on syntax but also on the topic–comment structure of the sentence (for example, what aspect is assumed to be known and what is emphasized).

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes ("free" morphemes) and depending on word order to convey meaning.

Polish language

PolishplPolish-language
Most languages with a high degree of morphological marking have rather flexible word orders, such as Polish, Hungarian, Portuguese, Latin, Albanian, and O'odham.
Polish is a highly inflected language, with relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages employ different orders.

Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages employ different orders.