Working class

working-classlower classworkersworking classeslower-classworking peopleworkinglower classeslabouring classworking-
The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.wikipedia
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Blue-collar worker

blue-collarblue collarblue-collar workers
Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color") include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs.
A blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor.

Social class

classsocial classesclasses
As with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

Middle class

middle-classmiddlemiddle classes
When this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, education, cultural interests, and other goods and services.
In Weberian socioeconomic terms, the middle class is the broad group of people in contemporary society who fall socio-economically between the working class and upper class.

Wage labour

wage laborlaborlabour
Members of the working class rely for their income exclusively upon their earnings from wage labour; thus the category includes almost all of the working population of industrialized economies, as well as those employed in the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies or in the rural workforce.
Although most labour is organised as per this structure, the wage work arrangements of CEOs, professional employees, and professional contract workers are sometimes conflated with class assignments, so that "wage labour" is considered to apply only to unskilled, semi-skilled or manual labour.

Designation of workers by collar color

no collarwhite collar", "blue collar", or "no collar
Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color") include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs.
A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual work and either earns an hourly wage or is paid piece rate for the amount of work done.

Bourgeoisie

bourgeoisburgherburghers
In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature).
Historically, the medieval French word bourgeois denoted the inhabitants of the bourgs (walled market-towns), the craftsmen, artisans, merchants, and others, who constituted "the bourgeoisie", they were the socio-economic class between the peasants and the landlords, between the workers and the owners of the means of production.

Marxism

MarxistMarxistsMarxist theory
In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature).
Marxist sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class".

The Making of the English Working Class

In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, and seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class.
It concentrates on English artisan and working class society "in its formative years 1780 to 1832."

Proletarianization

proletarianisedproletarianisationproletarianize
Some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization, often effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers.
The growth of capital meant the growth of the working class.

Enclosure

enclosedinclosureinclosed
Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
During the Georgian era, the process of enclosure created a landless working class that provided the labour required in the new industries developing in the north of England.

Proletariat

proletarianproletariansworking class
In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature).
Karl Marx, who studied Roman law at the Friedrich Wilhelm University of Berlin, used the term proletariat in his socio-political theory of Marxism to describe a working class unadulterated by private property and capable of a revolutionary action to topple capitalism in order to create classless society.

Means of production

different organizations of productionforcesmaterials
In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature).
In contrast, the proletariat, or working class, comprises the majority of the population that lacks access to the means of production and are therefore induced to sell their labor power for a wage or salary to gain access to necessities, goods and services.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature).
Marx and Engels held the view that the consciousness of those who earn a wage or salary (the working class in the broadest Marxist sense) would be moulded by their conditions of wage slavery, leading to a tendency to seek their freedom or emancipation by overthrowing ownership of the means of production by capitalists and consequently, overthrowing the state that upheld this economic order.

Wage

wageswage ratelabor costs
The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
Working class

The Communist Manifesto

Communist ManifestoManifesto of the Communist PartyThe Manifesto of the Communist Party
In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationships underpinning the class system and then developing into a future communist society in which "the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all."
In capitalism, the industrial working class, or proletariat, engage in class struggle against the owners of the means of production, the bourgeoisie.

Class conflict

class struggleclass warfareclass war
This broad dichotomy defines the class struggle.
Marxists refer to its overt manifestations as class war, a struggle whose resolution in favor of the working class is viewed by them as inevitable under plutocratic capitalism.

Welfare state

welfarewelfare statessocial state
In general, in Marxist terms, wage labourers and those dependent on the welfare state are working class, and those who live on accumulated capital are not.
His paternalistic programs aimed to forestall social unrest and to undercut the appeal of the Social Democratic Party, and to secure the support of the working classes for the German Empire, as well as to reduce emigration to the United States, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.

Labour movement

labor movementlaborlabour
Labour movement
* The trade union movement consists of the collective organisation of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, from their governments.

Proletarian literature

proletarian novelproletarian writerproletarian literature movement
Proletarian literature
Proletarian literature refers here to the literature created by working-class writers mainly for the class-conscious proletariat.

Working-class culture

working class cultureproletarian cultureclass culture
Working-class culture
Working-class culture is a range of cultures created by or popular among working-class people.

Capital accumulation

accumulation of capitalaccumulationaccumulated capital
In general, in Marxist terms, wage labourers and those dependent on the welfare state are working class, and those who live on accumulated capital are not.
This depresses the wage bill, leading to stagnant wages and high rates of unemployment for the working class while excess profits search for new profitable investment opportunities.

Working class in the United States

working classAmerican working classworking-class
Working class in the United States
In the United States, the concept of a working class remains vaguely defined, and classifying people or jobs into this class can be contentious.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationships underpinning the class system and then developing into a future communist society in which "the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all."
Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the Grundrisse and The Civil War in France, emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state to mediate or aid its liberation.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationships underpinning the class system and then developing into a future communist society in which "the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all."
This interpretation emphasises that capital ownership, predicated on command over labor, is a social relation: the growth of capital implies the growth of the working class (a "law of accumulation").

Trade union

unionlabor uniontrade unionist
Trade union
This generally sought to end child labour practices, improve worker safety, increase wages for both union workers and non-union workers, raise the entire society's standard of living, reduce the hours in a work week, provide public education for children, and bring other benefits to working class families.