Working parent

working mothersworking motherworking parentsdual-earner familiesMommy warspoorer pregnant womenworkingworking familyworking mom
A working parent is a father or a mother who engages in a work life.wikipedia
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Mother

maternitymotherhoodmaternal
A working parent is a father or a mother who engages in a work life.
Mothers may be stay at home mothers or working mothers.

Motherhood penalty

hiring bias against mothersimpact on working mothers,mommy gap
This is often reflected in disparities of privileges and advantages in the work place between men and women, where the disadvantages of the motherhood penalty, the wage gap, and the second shift come into play.

Leslie Morgan Steiner

Leslie Morgan Steiner wrote that, as women struggle to come to terms with their own choices in parenting against society's standards, they engage in this warfare that does nothing to promote self-acceptance, acceptance of others, or balance within their individual lives.
While working for The Washington Post, Steiner became interested in the struggles of and tensions between American working and stay-at-home mothers.

Father

paternalsirefatherhood
A working parent is a father or a mother who engages in a work life.

Gender inequality

gender inequalitiesgender imbalanceinequality
These family structures sometimes raise much concern about gender inequalities.

Gender role

gender rolesgender stereotypesgender norms
Within the institution of gender, there are defined gender roles that society expects of mothers and fathers that are reflected by events and expectations in the home and at work.

White Americans

WhiteWhite AmericanCaucasian
This situation changed for mothers to take on the housewife role as immigrants from Europe and Asia earned whiteness.

The Second Shift

a book by Arlie Russell Hochschildbook of the same namedouble day
Additionally, it is still believed by most people that parents who stay at home with no formal outside job are not doing any work, when in fact, these parents put in more hours of work than their counterparts, shown by statistics documenting the second shift.

Hegemonic masculinity

toxic masculinityanxiety among menhegemonic
Hegemonic masculinity plays a role in determining a man's bonus.

Gender pay gap

gender wage gapgender gapwage gap
This is often reflected in disparities of privileges and advantages in the work place between men and women, where the disadvantages of the motherhood penalty, the wage gap, and the second shift come into play. Strictly policed career push to send men and women into different fields, as well as the gender pay gap highlight the discrimination that women face in the work force.

Glass ceiling

glass ceilingsglass-ceilingbamboo ceiling
These hurdles, among others, present mothers with possibilities in their career while simultaneously putting permanent barriers preventing them from succeeding, a concept known as the glass ceiling.

Marriage bar

marriage barsbanfiring of a woman when she got married
From the late 19th century to the 1970s, married women in some Western countries were restricted from working outside the home through marriage bars.

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
For instance, in the Netherlands, the marriage bar was removed in 1957, and in Ireland it was removed in 1973.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
For instance, in the Netherlands, the marriage bar was removed in 1957, and in Ireland it was removed in 1973.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
In some European countries, married women could not work without the consent of their husbands until just a few decades ago, for example, in France until 1965 and in Spain until 1975.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
In some European countries, married women could not work without the consent of their husbands until just a few decades ago, for example, in France until 1965 and in Spain until 1975.

Second-wave feminism

second wave feminismsecond-wave feministsecond wave
After second wave of feminism made it possible for more women to be present in the work place, many mothers took advantage; according to the U.S. Department of Labor, the increase of mothers in the workforce, with children under the age of 18, has risen to 70.6% in 2011.

Masculinity

masculinemasculinitiesmanliness
Relating to their male counterparts, if women want to provide more for their family, they are to take on the masculine work ethic.

Housewife

housewivesstay-at-home momstay-at-home mother
In Europe, Ireland and the Netherlands have some of the strongest housewife traditions.

European Communities

European CommunityECEuropean Communities (EC)
In the early 1980s, the Commission of the European Communities report Women in the European Community, found that the Netherlands and Ireland had the lowest labour participation of married women, and the most public disapproval of it.

Part-time contract

part-timepart timepart-time job
In the Netherlands, from the 1990s onwards, the number of women entering the workplace have increased, yet with most of the women only working part time.

The Economist

EconomistEconomist magazineLondon Economist
According to The Economist, in the Netherlands, fewer men had to fight in the World Wars of the 20th century, and so Dutch women did not experience working for pay at rates women in other countries did.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
In contrast to the mid-20th century Western Europe, Communist countries such as USSR and Mainland China encouraged married women to keep working after they had given birth.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
In contrast to the mid-20th century Western Europe, Communist countries such as USSR and Mainland China encouraged married women to keep working after they had given birth.

Mainland China

mainlandMainland ChineseChina
In contrast to the mid-20th century Western Europe, Communist countries such as USSR and Mainland China encouraged married women to keep working after they had given birth.