# Wormhole

**wormholesEinstein–Rosen bridgeEinstein-Rosen bridgetraversable wormholetraversable wormholesbridgeworm holeEinstein-Rosen BridgesEinstein-Rosen-Podolsky bridgeEverett phone**

A wormhole (or Einstein–Rosen bridge or Einstein–Rosen wormhole) is a speculative structure linking disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations solved using a Jacobian matrix and determinant.wikipedia

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### John Archibald Wheeler

**John WheelerJohn A. WheelerWheeler**

American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler (inspired by Weyl's work) coined the term "wormhole" in a 1957 paper co-authored by Charles Misner:

He is best known for linking the term "black hole" to objects with gravitational collapse already predicted early in the 20th century, for coining the terms "quantum foam", "neutron moderator", "wormhole" and "it from bit", and for hypothesizing the "one-electron universe".

### Negative energy

**negative kinetic energynegativenegative energies**

Wormholes that could be crossed in both directions, known as traversable wormholes, would be possible only if exotic matter with negative energy density could be used to stabilize them.

In more speculative theories, negative energy is involved in wormholes which may allow for time travel and warp drives for faster-than-light space travel.

### Nathan Rosen

**RosenN. Rosen**

Schwarzschild wormholes, also known as Einstein–Rosen bridges (named after Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen), are connections between areas of space that can be modeled as vacuum solutions to the Einstein field equations, and that are now understood to be intrinsic parts of the maximally extended version of the Schwarzschild metric describing an eternal black hole with no charge and no rotation.

The Einstein–Rosen bridge, later named the wormhole, was a theory of Nathan Rosen.

### White hole

**White Holes**

In order to satisfy this requirement, it turns out that in addition to the black hole interior region that particles enter when they fall through the event horizon from the outside, there must be a separate white hole interior region that allows us to extrapolate the trajectories of particles that an outside observer sees rising up away from the event horizon.

White holes appear in the theory of eternal black holes.

### Exotic matter

**negative matterexotic particleexotic**

Wormholes that could be crossed in both directions, known as traversable wormholes, would be possible only if exotic matter with negative energy density could be used to stabilize them. Although Schwarzschild wormholes are not traversable in both directions, their existence inspired Kip Thorne to imagine traversable wormholes created by holding the "throat" of a Schwarzschild wormhole open with exotic matter (material that has negative mass/energy).

It is used in certain speculative theories, such as on the construction of artificial wormholes and the Alcubierre drive.

### Kip Thorne

**Kip S. ThorneKip Stephen ThorneThorne, Kip**

Although Schwarzschild wormholes are not traversable in both directions, their existence inspired Kip Thorne to imagine traversable wormholes created by holding the "throat" of a Schwarzschild wormhole open with exotic matter (material that has negative mass/energy). Kip Thorne and his graduate student Mike Morris, unaware of the 1973 papers by Ellis and Bronnikov, manufactured, and in 1988 published, a duplicate of the Ellis wormhole for use as a tool for teaching general relativity.

His presentations on subjects such as black holes, gravitational radiation, relativity, time travel, and wormholes have been included in PBS shows in the U.S. and on the BBC in the United Kingdom.

### ER=EPR

**EPR=ER**

The only known natural process that is theoretically predicted to form a wormhole in the context of general relativity and quantum mechanics was put forth by Leonard Susskind in his ER=EPR conjecture.

ER=EPR is a conjecture in physics stating that entangled particles are connected by a wormhole (or Einstein–Rosen bridge) and may be a basis for unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics into a theory of everything.

### Negative mass

**gravitationally repulsive negative massesnegative energiesnegative gravitational mass**

It has also been proposed that, if a tiny wormhole held open by a negative mass cosmic string had appeared around the time of the Big Bang, it could have been inflated to macroscopic size by cosmic inflation.

Such matter would violate one or more energy conditions and show some strange properties, stemming from the ambiguity as to whether attraction should refer to force or the oppositely oriented acceleration for negative mass. It is used in certain speculative hypotheses, such as on the construction of traversable wormholes and the Alcubierre drive.

### Theoretical physics

**theoretical physicisttheoreticaltheoretical physicists**

American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler (inspired by Weyl's work) coined the term "wormhole" in a 1957 paper co-authored by Charles Misner:

### Ellis drainhole

Ellis analyzed the topology and the geodesics of the Ellis drainhole, showing it to be geodesically complete, horizonless, singularity-free, and fully traversable in both directions.

The Ellis drainhole is the earliest-known complete mathematical model of a traversable wormhole.

### General relativity

**general theory of relativitygeneral relativity theoryrelativity**

Wormholes are consistent with the general theory of relativity, but whether wormholes actually exist remains to be seen.

Since then, other—similarly impractical—GR solutions containing CTCs have been found, such as the Tipler cylinder and traversable wormholes.

### Matt Visser

**VisserVisser, Matt**

Formalizing this idea leads to definitions such as the following, taken from Matt Visser's Lorentzian Wormholes (1996).

Visser has produced a large number of research papers on the subject of wormholes, gravitational horizons and notably the emerging subject of acoustic metrics.

### Albert Einstein

**EinsteinEinsteinianA. Einstein**

Schwarzschild wormholes, also known as Einstein–Rosen bridges (named after Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen), are connections between areas of space that can be modeled as vacuum solutions to the Einstein field equations, and that are now understood to be intrinsic parts of the maximally extended version of the Schwarzschild metric describing an eternal black hole with no charge and no rotation.

In 1935, Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole, often called Einstein–Rosen bridges.

### Time travel

**time machinetime-traveltime-traveling**

Wormholes connect two points in spacetime, which means that they would in principle allow travel in time, as well as in space.

Traveling to an arbitrary point in spacetime has a very limited support in theoretical physics, and usually is connected only with quantum mechanics or wormholes, also known as Einstein-Rosen bridges.

### Hermann Weyl

**WeylH. WeylHermann Klaus Hugo Weyl**

In 1928, Hermann Weyl proposed a wormhole hypothesis of matter in connection with mass analysis of electromagnetic field energy; however, he did not use the term "wormhole" (he spoke of "one-dimensional tubes" instead).

### Ellis wormhole

What is left is the Ellis wormhole, a nongravitating, purely geometric, traversable wormhole.

What remains is a pure traversable wormhole comprising a pair of identical twin, nonflat, three-dimensional regions joined at a two-sphere, the 'throat' of the wormhole.

### Charles W. Misner

**Charles MisnerCharles William MisnerMisner, Charles W**

American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler (inspired by Weyl's work) coined the term "wormhole" in a 1957 paper co-authored by Charles Misner:

### Faster-than-light

**faster than lightFTLsuperluminal**

Wormholes might allow effective superluminal (faster-than-light) travel by ensuring that the speed of light is not exceeded locally at any time.

Examples of apparent FTL proposals are the Alcubierre drive and the traversable wormhole.

### Cosmic string

**cosmic stringsCosmic string solutionCosmic Superstrings**

It has also been proposed that, if a tiny wormhole held open by a negative mass cosmic string had appeared around the time of the Big Bang, it could have been inflated to macroscopic size by cosmic inflation.

The stability of such exotic matter strings is problematic; however, they suggested that if a negative mass string were to be wrapped around a wormhole in the early universe, such a wormhole could be stabilized sufficiently to exist in the present day.

### Ludwig Flamm

The Einstein–Rosen bridge was discovered by Ludwig Flamm in 1916, a few months after Schwarzschild published his solution, and was rediscovered by Albert Einstein and his colleague Nathan Rosen, who published their result in 1935.

He was the first to describe solutions that lead to connections, now called wormholes, in the spacetime continuum.

### Mike Morris (physicist)

**Mike MorrisMorris**

Kip Thorne and his graduate student Mike Morris, unaware of the 1973 papers by Ellis and Bronnikov, manufactured, and in 1988 published, a duplicate of the Ellis wormhole for use as a tool for teaching general relativity.

Among his nine published peer-reviewed papers, his most notable theoretical contribution is his pioneering analysis of time travel through traversable wormholes, coauthored in 1987 with Kip Thorne, and Ulvi Yurtsever.

### Non-orientable wormhole

**Alice universe**

In wormhole theory, a non-orientable wormhole is a wormhole connection that appears to reverse the chirality of anything passed through it.

### Alcubierre drive

**Alcubierre metricwarp driveAlcubierre drives**

At the close of his original article, however, Alcubierre argued (following an argument developed by physicists analyzing traversable wormholes ) that the Casimir vacuum between parallel plates could fulfill the negative-energy requirement for the Alcubierre drive.

### Einstein–Cartan theory

**Einstein-CartanEinstein-Cartan gravityEinstein–Cartan**

In the Einstein–Cartan–Sciama–Kibble theory of gravity, however, it forms a regular Einstein–Rosen bridge.

In the Einstein–Cartan theory, instead, the collapse reaches a bounce and forms a regular Einstein–Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, growing universe on the other side of the event horizon.

### Krasnikov tube

**Krasnikov's superluminal subway**

The resulting structure is analogous to a wormhole with the endpoints displaced in time as well as space.