A report on Wrocław

Coat of arms of Wrocław (with the inscription Civitas Wratislaviensis) in Lauf Castle, c. 1360.
The oldest printed text in the Polish language–Statuta Synodalia Episcoporum Wratislaviensis, printed in Wrocław by Kasper Elyan, 1475
St Martin's Church, the only remaining part of the medieval Piast stronghold that once stood in Wrocław
Map of the city from 1562, with its fortifications on the Oder River
Battle of Breslau during the Seven Years' War (Third Silesian War 1756–1763)
Entry of Prince Jérôme Bonaparte into Breslau, 7 January 1807
The Royal Palace from 1717 was once the residence of Prussian monarchs. Today, the building houses the City Museum.
Old Town Hall, 1900
Market Square, 1890–1900
Feniks Department Store, built in 1902–1904
Aerial view of pre-war Breslau, 1920
Wartime destruction around the cathedral, 1945
Wrocław dwarf
Fighting Solidarity logo
John of Nepomuk Church in Szczytnicki Park, 16th-century
Wrocław South Park – Park Południowy
Map of Wrocław's areas where PM10 standards were exceeded in 2015
Wrocław New City Hall – the seat of the city mayor
Wrocław boroughs (until 1990)
The 48 administrative district quarters (since 1990)
Sky Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Poland. It offers office, commercial, residential and recreational space.
Wrocław Market Hall
Wroclavia Shopping Mall with a central bus station located underground
Map of Wrocław illustrating the A8 bypass and surrounding arterial roads
Wrocław Copernicus Airport in Strachowice
Koleje Dolnośląskie train at Wrocław Main Station
Moderus Gamma LF07AC tram
Wrocław City Bike
Wrocław Cathedral in the oldest district of Ostrów Tumski
White Stork Synagogue, initially opened in 1829
University of Wrocław
Wrocław University of Technology – Faculty of Architecture
Wrocław Multimedia Fountain
Świdnica Cellar (Piwnica Świdnicka), one of the oldest restaurant establishments in Europe.
Interior of the National Museum
National Forum of Music
Stadion Wrocław – Euro 2012 Stadium
Olympic Stadium

City in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia.

- Wrocław

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Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619

Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.


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Historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in Czechia and Germany.

Historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in Czechia and Germany.

Silesia in the early period of Poland's fragmentation, 1172–1177, Lower Silesia with Lubusz Land in orange, Upper Silesia in green and yellow
Battle of Legnica (1241) during the First Mongol invasion of Poland
Lands of the Bohemian Crown between 1635 and 1742, before most of Silesia was ceded to Prussia
Typical Silesian baroque architecture in Wrocław
First map of Silesia by Martin Helwig, 1561; north at the bottom
Bolesław Śmiały Coal Mine, Łaziska Górne
Polish names of Silesian cities, from a 1750 Prussian official document published in Berlin during the Silesian Wars
Confessions in the German Empire (Protestant/Catholic; c. 1890). Lower Silesia was mostly Protestant, while Glatz (Kłodzko) and Upper Silesia were mostly Catholic.
Coat of arms of the Prussian province of Upper Silesia (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Coat of arms of the Silesian Voivodeship
The coat of arms of the Opolskie Voivodeship
Henryk IV's Probus coat of arms
Coat of arms of Austrian Silesia (1742–1918)
Prussian province of Lower Silesia (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Coat of arms of the Lower Silesia Voivodeship
Coat of arms of Czech Silesia
Flag of Prussian Upper Silesia province (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Flag of Silesia Voivodeship
Flag of the Austrian Silesia (1742–1918), and Czech Silesia
Flag of Prussian Lower Silesia province (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Flag of Lower Silesia Voivodeship
Churches of Peace, Świdnica and Jawor
Centennial Hall, Wrocław
Historic Silver Mine, Tarnowskie Góry
Muskau Park, Łęknica and Bad Muskau<ref>Łęknica and Bad Muskau were considered part of Silesia in years 1815–1945.</ref>

The largest city and Lower Silesia's capital is Wrocław; the historic capital of Upper Silesia is Katowice.


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River in Central Europe.

River in Central Europe.

Oder in Wrocław, overlooking Ostrów Tumski - Cathedral Island
The Oder dividing Poland and Germany seen from the Polish side near Kostrzyn nad Odrą
Estuary of the Lusatian Neisse into the Oder
The Oder in Szczecin, Poland, flows along the banks of the Old Town and the Ducal Castle
Łarpia, a left distributary of the Oder in Police, Poland

The largest city on the Oder is Wrocław, in Lower Silesia.

Lower Silesia

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Northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.

Northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.

Silesian coat of arms,
as drawn c. 1890 by Hugo Gerard Ströhl
Historic Silesia, superimposed on modern international borders:
cyan outline = medieval Bohemian crown land (after the loss of Krosno)
yellow outline = Prussian Silesia as of 1815 (with Upper Lusatian gains and Kłodzko, but without Austrian Silesia)
Kingdom of Poland with Lower Silesia under the first king Bolesław I the Brave
The oldest known Polish written sentence in the Book of Henryków
Renaissance facade of the Brzeg Castle, depicting members of the Piast dynasty, from the semi-legendary founder Piast the Wheelwright to Duke Frederick II of Legnica
Map of the Prussian Province of Silesia, with Lower Silesian administrative regions (Regencies) of Liegnitz and Breslau ("Middle Silesia")
Gross-Rosen concentration camp, now a museum
Wrocław Town Hall
Nysa, Poland
Baroque palace in Radomierzyce
Stadion Miejski (Wrocław)

It was one of the leading regions of Poland, and its capital Wrocław was one of the main cities of the Polish Kingdom.


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Capital and largest city of Poland.

Capital and largest city of Poland.

A paper engraving of 16th-century Warsaw by Hogenberg showing St. John's Archcathedral to the right. The church was founded in 1390, and is one of the city's ancient and most important landmarks.
Warsaw New Town in 1778. Painted by Bernardo Bellotto
Water Filters, designed by William Lindley and finished in 1886
Sea of rubble – over 85% of the buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by the end of World War II, including the Old Town and Royal Castle.
The Warsaw Uprising took place in 1944. The Polish Home Army attempted to liberate Warsaw from the Germans before the arrival of the Red Army.
A tourist standing beside the iconic Palace of Culture and Science, 1965
Warsaw, as seen from the ESA Sentinel-2
View of Grzybowski Square in the central district of Warsaw. The city is located on the mostly flat Masovian Plain, but the city centre is at a higher elevation than the suburbs.
Autumn in Warsaw's Royal Baths
Hotel Bristol is a unique example of Warsaw's architectural heritage, combining Art Nouveau and Neo-Renaissance designs.
Main Market Square in Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
New World Street, one of the main shopping promenades in Warsaw
Łazienki Palace, also referred to as the Palace on the Isle
Saxon Garden with the central fountain
A red squirrel in one of Warsaw's parks
The Lutheran Holy Trinity Church is an important landmark
Neoclassical Commission Palace, the house of the city's government
Embassy of the Netherlands
Hala Koszyki, a former market hall from the early 20th century
The Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest in Central Europe.
Praga Koneser Center within the former Warsaw Vodka Factory
Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street
The main gate of the University of Warsaw
Warsaw University Library
S8 in Warsaw
Warsaw Chopin Airport
The edifice of the Grand Theatre in Warsaw. It is one of the largest theatres in Europe, featuring one of the biggest stages in the world.
Warsaw Philharmonic is a venue for the International Chopin Piano Competition
Museum of the History of Polish Jews opened in 2013
The 17th-century Ostrogski Castle (left) houses the Chopin Museum.
Wuzetka chocolate cake originated in Warsaw and is an icon of the city
Interior of the Wedel Chocolate Lounge on Szpitalna Street
Annual procession of the Three Wise Men (Epiphany) at Warsaw's Castle Square
The 1659 coat of arms of Old Warsaw on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books
1855 bronze sculpture of The Warsaw Mermaid in the Old Town Market Place
The Interior of the National Stadium before the UEFA Euro 2012 semi-final match between Germany and Italy on 28 June 2012
Stadion Wojska Polskiego, the home ground of Legia Warsaw football club
St. Anne's Church
Holy Cross Church
Carmelite Church has an original 18th-century façade
Wilanów Palace, once a royal residence
Belweder Palace, official seat of the President
Castle Square with the Royal Castle and Sigismund's Column
Krasiński Palace, a branch of the National Library
Canon Square (Kanonia) with the narrowest townhouse in Europe
St. Kazimierz Church at New Town Market Square
Three Crosses Square marks the entry into Old Town
Barbican, a remaining relic of historic fortifications.
Poland's bicameral parliament, the Sejm and the Senate
Chancellery of the Prime Minister
The Presidential Palace, seat of the Polish president
Supreme Court of Poland
Supreme Administrative Court
The seat of the administration of the Masovian Voivodeship
Mostowski Palace, the seat of Warsaw's police headquarters
The main gate of the Ministry of Health
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Finance
Metro Line 2, Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet station
Tram car
Pendolino high-speed trains at Warszawa Centralna
Warsaw Suburban train

One theory states that Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine Old Polish name Warcisław, which etymologically is linked with Wrocław.

Lower Silesian Voivodeship

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One of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.

One of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.

Wrocław Town Hall
Mount Ślęża
"Hell" on Szczeliniec Wielki (Table Mountains National Park)
Snowy Pits
Bear's Cave
Project Riese, Owl Mountains
Aleja Bielany - the largest shopping center in Poland
Jelenia Góra
Map of the powiats (counties)
The Skull Chapel in Kudowa
The Church of Peace in Świdnica is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Cistercian Lubiąż Abbey
800-year old Vang Stave Church in Karpacz
Abbey of the Order of Saint Benedict in Krzeszów
Sobieski Castle in Oława
Wrocław Główny railway station is a major railway hub in the region
Koleje Dolnośląskie train at Wrocław Główny
Copernicus Airport Wrocław
A4 motorway in Jędrzychowice
The viaduct in Lewin Kłodzki, on the railway line No. 309
Książ Castle in Wałbrzych
Piast Castle in Legnica
Czocha Castle
Oleśnica Castle
Krobielowice Palace
Radomierzyce Palace
Jedlinka Palace in Jedlina-Zdrój
Wojanów Palace
Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Palace
Sanctuary of St. Jadwiga, Trzebnica
Cathedral of St. Vincent and St. James, Wrocław
Holy Cross Church, Wrocław
Church of St. Clare and Hedwig church, Wrocław

Its capital and largest city is Wrocław, situated on the Oder River.


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Second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

Tomb of Casimir III the Great at Wawel Cathedral. Kraków was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596.
The Church of St. Adalbert is one of the oldest churches in the city, dating from the 11th century.
Woodcut of Kraków from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
View of Kraków (Cracovia) near the end of the 16th-century
Tadeusz Kościuszko takes the oath of loyalty to the Polish nation in Kraków's market square (Rynek), 1794
Act of granting the constitution to the Free City of Krakow. After the Partitions of Poland, Kraków was independent city republic and the only piece of sovereign Polish territory between 1815 and 1846.
Flower vendors in Rynek. First autochrome in Poland, dated 1912
Kraków Ghetto, 1942—a German checkpoint during operation Aktion Krakau
Kraków's territorial growth from the late 18th to the 20th century
Camaldolese Hermit Monastery in Bielany
Convent of Norbertine Sisters in Kraków-Zwierzyniec and the Vistula River during the summer season
The Renaissance Cloth Hall (Sukiennice) in Main Market Square
The Kraków Barbican dating from around 1498 was once a fortified outpost of the inner medieval city.
Kanonicza Street, at the foot of the Wawel Castle
View of Kraków from St. Mary's Basilica in the Market Square
Palace of Art at Szczepański Square is an example of Art Nouveau architecture in central Kraków.
Basztowa Street, filled with some of the most unique historical buildings in all architectural styles; part of the Royal Route of Kraków
Pawilon Wyspiański 2000 is a rare example of Postmodern architecture present in Kraków's Old Town.
Planty Park, which surrounds Kraków's Old Town
A pavilion within the Planty Park during winter
The New Town Hall of Podgórze, which used to be a self-governing independent town until its incorporation into Kraków in 1915
Entrance to the Wielopolski Palace from 1560, the seat of Kraków's mayor, administration and city council
Matejko Square, featuring the Grunwald Monument at Kleparz, is one of the city's most important public spaces.
Socialist-realist district of Nowa Huta
The Center for Business Innovation office complex in Kraków
Unity Tower, one of the tallest buildings in the city
Bombardier city tram on Piłsudski Bridge
PKP Intercity train at the Main Railway Station
Wawel Cathedral, home to royal coronations and resting place of many national heroes; considered to be Poland's national sanctuary
Saint Anne's Church is the leading example of Baroque architecture in Poland.
Kraków University of Economics
Collegium Maius, Jagiellonian University's oldest building
Leonardo da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine, at the Czartoryski Museum
The National Museum in Kraków is one of Poland's finest galleries of art.
Kraków Congress Centre – the business and cultural flagship of the city
Kraków's renowned Juliusz Słowacki Theatre
Concert hall of the Kraków Philharmonic
Wisła Kraków Stadium
Tauron Arena Kraków
Cracovia Stadium
Wawel Castle
German concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Wieliczka Salt Mine
Pieskowa Skała castle
Benedictine Tyniec Abbey

It was rebuilt practically identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.

Centennial Hall after renovation in 2009

Centennial Hall (Wrocław)

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Centennial Hall after renovation in 2009
Exhibition Grounds in 1913
Jahrhunderthalle in 1920
The interior of the hall
Orgel der Jahrhunderthalle

The Centennial Hall (Hala Stulecia,, Jahrhunderthalle ), formerly named Hala Ludowa ("People's Hall"), is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland.

University of Wrocław

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Proposed design of Leopoldina (never fully completed), 1760
The University of Breslau, 19th century
Modern view of the Collegium Maximum
Aula Leopoldina
Fencer fountain on the University square, installed in 1904 and designed by Hugo Lederer
The University Church, vault
Collegium Maximum of the University of Wrocław seen from the Old Town
Collegium Anthropologicum on Kuźnicza Street
Stanisław Baranowski Spitsbergen Polar Station
Astronomical Institute of the Wrocław University

The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.

Cathedral of St. John in Wrocław, centre of the archdiocese

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Wrocław

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Cathedral of St. John in Wrocław, centre of the archdiocese
Przecław of Pogarell, 20th Bishop of Wrocław
Peter Nowak, 23rd Bishop of Wrocław
Jošt of Rožmberk, 24th Bishop of Wrocław
Johann IV. Roth, 26th Bishop of Wrocław
Friedrich of Hesse-Darmstadt, 41st Bishop of Wrocław
Prince-Bishop Philipp Gotthard von Schaffgotsch, 45th bishop on the see.
Prince-Bishop Joseph Knauer, 49th bishop of the see
Cardinal Adolf Bertram, elevated to first Archbishop of Breslau in 1930.
Bolesław Kominek, 2nd Archbishop (first postwar) of Wrocław

The Archdiocese of Wrocław (Archidiecezja wrocławska; Erzbistum Breslau; Arcidiecéze vratislavská; Archidioecesis Vratislaviensis) is a Latin Church ecclesiastical territory or archdiocese of the Catholic Church centered in the city of Wrocław in Poland.