X-bar theory

X-bar schemaX' theoryX-barX-bar frameworkX-bar grammarX-bar structureX-bar theoreticX′-theoretic head
X-bar theory is a theory of syntactic category formation.wikipedia
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Specifier (linguistics)

specifierSpec
1. An X Phrase consists of an optional specifier and an X-bar, in any order:
In X-bar theory in linguistics, specifiers, head words, complements and adjuncts together form phrases.

Inflectional phrase

inflection phraseAgreement phrasetensed I
The "IP" is an inflectional phrase.
In X-bar theory and other grammatical theories that incorporate it, an inflectional phrase or inflection phrase (IP or InflP) is a functional phrase that has inflectional properties (such as tense and agreement).

Prime (symbol)

prime symbolprimeDouble prime
Because this may be difficult to typeset, this is often written as X′, using the prime symbol or with superscript numerals as exponents, e.g., X 1.
Originally, X-bar theory used a bar over syntactic units to indicate bar-levels in syntactic structure, generally rendered as an overbar.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
The word the is a determiner (specifically an article), which at first was believed to be a type of specifier for nouns.
Linguists interested in X-bar theory causally link zero articles to nouns lacking a determiner.

Bar (diacritic)

barstrokebar diacritic
Certain structures are represented by X (an X with a bar over it).

Ray Jackendoff

JackendoffJackendoff, RayJackendoff, R.
6) approach to categories, and further developed by Ray Jackendoff (1977).

Antisymmetry

antisymmetricCondition on Extraction Domainfirst section
Richard Kayne's theory of Antisymmetry derived X-bar theory from the assumption that there was a tight relation between structure and linear order; and Noam Chomsky's paper Bare Phrase Structure attempted to eliminate labelling (i.e., bar-levels) from syntax and deduce their effects from other principles of the grammar.
The theory derives a version of X-bar theory.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
3. Another kind of X-bar consists of an X (the head of the phrase) and any number of complements (possibly zero), in any order:
Trees that are based on the X-bar schema also acknowledge head-initial, head-final, and head-medial phrases, although the depiction of heads is less direct.

Transformational grammar

transformational generative grammartransformationaltransformational-generative grammar
Consider the sentence He studies linguistics at the university. A transformational grammar theory might parse this sentence as the following diagram shows:
Minimalist approaches to phrase structure have resulted in "Bare Phrase Structure," an attempt to eliminate X-bar theory.

Complement (linguistics)

complementcomplementsobject complement
3. Another kind of X-bar consists of an X (the head of the phrase) and any number of complements (possibly zero), in any order:
In many modern grammars (for instance in those that build on the X-bar framework), the object argument of a verbal predicate is called a complement.

Determiner

determinersDeterminer (linguistics)definite determiner
The word the is a determiner (specifically an article), which at first was believed to be a type of specifier for nouns.
These grammar theories are either based on X-bar theory or descend from it, which requires that every noun has a corresponding determiner (or specifier).

Generative grammar

generative linguisticsgenerativegenerative phonology
When the X-bar schema was introduced and generally adopted into generative grammar in the 1970s, it was replacing a view of syntax that allowed for exocentric structures with one that views all sentence structure as endocentric.

Minimalist program

Minimalismbare phrase structureThe Minimalist Program
Recent work in the Minimalist Program has largely abandoned X-bar schemata in favor of bare phrase structure approaches.
This theory contrasts with X-bar theory, which preceded it, in four important ways:

Endocentric and exocentric

exocentricendocentric
When the X-bar schema was introduced and generally adopted into generative grammar in the 1970s, it was replacing a view of syntax that allowed for exocentric structures with one that views all sentence structure as endocentric.
With the advent of X-bar Theory in Transformational Grammar in the 1970s, this traditional exocentric division was largely abandoned and replaced by an endocentric analysis, whereby the sentence is viewed as an inflection phrase (IP), which is essentially a projection of the verb (a fact that makes the sentence a big VP in a sense).

Sentence diagram

sentence diagrammingReed-Kellogg sentence diagram
The result can be very "tall" trees, such as those associated with X-bar theory.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
The letter X is used to signify an arbitrary lexical category (part of speech); when analyzing a specific utterance, specific categories are assigned.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
Thus, the X may become an N for noun, a V for verb, an A for adjective, or a P for preposition.

Verb

verbssubject-verb agreementv.
Thus, the X may become an N for noun, a V for verb, an A for adjective, or a P for preposition.

Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
Thus, the X may become an N for noun, a V for verb, an A for adjective, or a P for preposition.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Thus, the X may become an N for noun, a V for verb, an A for adjective, or a P for preposition.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
Richard Kayne's theory of Antisymmetry derived X-bar theory from the assumption that there was a tight relation between structure and linear order; and Noam Chomsky's paper Bare Phrase Structure attempted to eliminate labelling (i.e., bar-levels) from syntax and deduce their effects from other principles of the grammar. X-bar theory was first proposed by Noam Chomsky (1970), building on Zellig Harris's 1951 (ch.

Zellig Harris

HarrisZellig S. HarrisHarris, Zellig Sabbetai
X-bar theory was first proposed by Noam Chomsky (1970), building on Zellig Harris's 1951 (ch.

Generalized phrase structure grammar

Generalised phrase structure grammargeneralized phrase structureGeneralized phrase structure grammar (GPSG)
X-bar theory was incorporated into both transformational and nontransformational theories of syntax, including GB, GPSG, LFG, and HPSG.

Head-driven phrase structure grammar

HPSGHead-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG)
X-bar theory was incorporated into both transformational and nontransformational theories of syntax, including GB, GPSG, LFG, and HPSG.

ID/LP grammar

immediate dominance ruleimmediate dominance rules
These rules can be expressed in English, as immediate dominance rules for natural language (useful for example for programmers in the field of natural language processing), or visually as parse trees.