X-ray

X-raysX raysoft X-rayX raysX-radiationRöntgen rayshard X-rayX-rayedRoentgen rayssoft X-rays
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.wikipedia
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Electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic waveelectromagnetic waveselectromagnetic
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.
It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Ultraviolet

UVultraviolet lightultraviolet radiation
X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

Wilhelm Röntgen

Wilhelm Conrad RöntgenRöntgenWilhelm Roentgen
In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

Gamma ray

gamma radiationgamma raysgamma-ray
X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays.
Gamma rays and X-rays are both electromagnetic radiation, and since they overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum, the terminology varies between scientific disciplines.

Ivan Puluj

Ivan PulyuiIvan Pulyuy
In 1889 Ukrainian-born Ivan Pulyui, a lecturer in experimental physics at the Prague Polytechnic who since 1877 had been constructing various designs of gas-filled tubes to investigate their properties, published a paper on how sealed photographic plates became dark when exposed to the emanations from the tubes.
Ivan Pului (son of Pavlo Pului Іва́н Пулю́й, син Па́вла Пулю́я; Johann Puluj; 2 February 1845 – 31 January 1918) was a Ukrainian physicist and inventor, who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging.

Crookes tube

CrookesCrookes focus tubeCrookes' tube
Many of the early Crookes tubes (invented around 1875) undoubtedly radiated X-rays, because early researchers noticed effects that were attributable to them, as detailed below.
Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays using the Crookes tube in 1895.

Fluoroscopy

fluoroscopefluoroscopicJames F. McNulty (U.S. radio engineer)
In May 1896 he developed the first mass-produced live imaging device, his "Vitascope", later called the fluoroscope, which became the standard for medical X-ray examinations.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

X-ray generator

X-ray machineX-ray machinesX-ray source
A worried McKinley aide sent word to inventor Thomas Edison to rush an X-ray machine to Buffalo to find the stray bullet.
An X-ray generator is a device that produces X-rays.

John Hall-Edwards

Major John Hall-EdwardsHall-Edwards
The first use of X-rays under clinical conditions was by John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England on 11 January 1896, when he radiographed a needle stuck in the hand of an associate.
John Francis Hall-Edwards FRSE (19 December 1858 – 15 August 1926) was a British doctor and pioneer in the medical use of X-rays in the United Kingdom.

Clarence Madison Dally

Clarence Dally
Edison dropped X-ray research around 1903, before the death of Clarence Madison Dally, one of his glassblowers.
Clarence Madison Dally (1865– October 2, 1904 ) was an American glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of radiation dermatitis and its complications.

Nobel Prize in Physics

Nobel PrizePhysicsNobel Prize for Physics
Röntgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery.
The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or X-rays).

Max von Laue

LaueMax LaueMax Theodor Felix von Laue
In 1912, Max von Laue, Paul Knipping, and Walter Friedrich first observed the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.
Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

X-ray tube

X-ray tubestube voltageCoolidge tube
The Coolidge X-ray tube was invented during the following year by William D. Coolidge. A disadvantage is that these methods require more sophisticated equipment, such as synchrotron or microfocus x-ray sources, X-ray optics, and high resolution x-ray detectors.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.

Nikola Tesla

TeslaNicola TeslaTesla, Nikola
In 1894 Nikola Tesla noticed damaged film in his lab that seemed to be associated with Crookes tube experiments and began investigating this radiant energy of "invisible" kinds.
Starting in 1894, Tesla began investigating what he referred to as radiant energy of "invisible" kinds after he had noticed damaged film in his laboratory in previous experiments (later identified as "Roentgen rays" or "X-Rays").

Lawrence Bragg

William Lawrence BraggBraggSir Lawrence Bragg
This discovery, along with the early work of Paul Peter Ewald, William Henry Bragg, and William Lawrence Bragg, gave birth to the field of X-ray crystallography.
He was joint recipient (with his father, William Henry Bragg) of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915, "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-ray"; an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography.

William Lofland Dudley

William DudleyDr. William DudleyDr. Dudley
In February 1896, Professor John Daniel and Dr. William Lofland Dudley of Vanderbilt University reported hair loss after Dr. Dudley was X-rayed.
Dudley also discovered that carbon monoxide was a major injurious component of tobacco smoke; and was one of the first to publish the physiological effects of X-rays with fellow Vanderbilt professor John Daniel.

Scheelite

calcium tungstateCaWO 4 scheelite crystals
American inventor Thomas Edison started research soon after Röntgen's discovery and investigated materials' ability to fluoresce when exposed to X-rays, finding that calcium tungstate was the most effective substance.
It was also used in radium paint in the same fashion as was zinc sulphide, and Thomas Edison invented a fluoroscope with a calcium tungstate-coated screen, making the images six times brighter than those with barium platinocyanide; the latter chemical allowed Röntgen to discover X-rays in early November 1895.

Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf HertzHertzHeinrich Rudolph Hertz
From 1886 to 1888 he had studied in the Hermann Helmholtz laboratory in Berlin, where he became familiar with the cathode rays generated in vacuum tubes when a voltage was applied across separate electrodes, as previously studied by Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard.
Philipp Lenard, a student of Heinrich Hertz, further researched this "ray effect".

Chandra X-ray Observatory

ChandraChandra Space TelescopeChandra X-ray telescope
The Chandra X-ray Observatory, launched on July 23, 1999, has been allowing the exploration of the very violent processes in the universe which produce X-rays.
Since the Earth's atmosphere absorbs the vast majority of X-rays, they are not detectable from Earth-based telescopes; therefore space-based telescopes are required to make these observations.

William Henry Bragg

William BraggSir William BraggSir William Henry Bragg
This discovery, along with the early work of Paul Peter Ewald, William Henry Bragg, and William Lawrence Bragg, gave birth to the field of X-ray crystallography.
Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician, and active sportsman who uniquely shared a Nobel Prize with his son Lawrence Bragg – the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics: "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays".

Radiation burn

radiation burnsradiation dermatitisbeta burn
Then in 1908, he had to have his left arm amputated because of the spread of X-ray dermatitis on his arm.
High exposure to X-rays during diagnostic medical imaging or radiotherapy can also result in radiation burns.

William D. Coolidge

William David CoolidgeWilliam CoolidgeCoolidge, William
The Coolidge X-ray tube was invented during the following year by William D. Coolidge.
William David Coolidge (October 23, 1873 – February 3, 1975) was an American physicist and engineer, who made major contributions to X-ray machines.

Phase-contrast X-ray imaging

Imaging X-ray Spectrometerphase contrastphase-contrast
Phase-contrast X-ray imaging refers to a variety of techniques that use phase information of a coherent x-ray beam to image soft tissues.
Phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) or phase-sensitive X-ray imaging is a general term for different technical methods that use information concerning changes in the phase of an X-ray beam that passes through an object in order to create its images.

X-ray optics

mirror designx-rayX-ray optic
A disadvantage is that these methods require more sophisticated equipment, such as synchrotron or microfocus x-ray sources, X-ray optics, and high resolution x-ray detectors.
X-ray optics is the branch of optics that manipulates X-rays instead of visible light.

X-ray laser

Xaser
An X-ray laser device was proposed as part of the Reagan Administration's Strategic Defense Initiative in the 1980s, but the only test of the device (a sort of laser "blaster" or death ray, powered by a thermonuclear explosion) gave inconclusive results.
An X-ray laser is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.