X86

x86 architectureIntel x8680x86i386Intelx86-16Intel 80x86EAX registerx86 processorsx86 platform
x86 is a family of instruction set architectures initially developed by Intel based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant.wikipedia
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X86 memory segmentation

segmentsegmented memorymemory segment
The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address.
x86 memory segmentation refers to the implementation of memory segmentation in the Intel x86 computer instruction set architecture.

ARM architecture

ARMARMv7ARMv8-A
As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM; at the high end, x86 continues to dominate compute-intensive workstation and cloud computing segments.
Processors that have a RISC architecture typically require fewer transistors than those with a complex instruction set computing (CISC) architecture (such as the x86 processors found in most personal computers), which improves cost, power consumption, and heat dissipation.

Geode (processor)

GeodeAMD GeodeGeode GX
Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some relatively low power and low cost segments.
Geode is a series of x86-compatible system-on-a-chip microprocessors and I/O companions produced by AMD, targeted at the embedded computing market.

VIA C7

C7VIA C7-MC7-M
Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some relatively low power and low cost segments.
The VIA C7 is an x86 central processing unit designed by Centaur Technology and sold by VIA Technologies.

Advanced Micro Devices

AMDATIAdvanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some relatively low power and low cost segments. The architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA Technologies and many other companies; there are also open implementations, such as the Zet SoC platform (currently inactive). Physical Address Extension or PAE was first added in the Intel Pentium Pro, and later by AMD in the Athlon processors, to allow up to 64 GB of RAM to be addressed. AMD later managed to establish itself as a serious contender with the K6 set of processors, which gave way to the very successful Athlon and Opteron.
AMD is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel in the market for x86-based microprocessors.

Intel 8080

8080i80808080A
The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address.
The 8080 was successful enough that compatibility at the assembly language level became a design requirement for the Intel 8086 when its design began in 1976, and led to the 8080 directly influencing all later variants of the ubiquitous 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architectures.

Protected mode

protected-mode16-bit protected mode286 protected mode
In protected mode, introduced in the 80286, a segment register no longer contains the physical address of the beginning of a segment, but contain a "selector" that points to a system-level structure called a segment descriptor.
In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs).

VIA Nano

NanoIsaiahNanoprocessor
Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some relatively low power and low cost segments.
The processor supports a number of VIA-specific x86 extensions designed to boost efficiency in low-power appliances.

Am5x86

AMD 5x86AMD Am5x865x86
The Am5x86 processor is an x86-compatible CPU introduced in 1995 by AMD for use in 486-class computer systems.

IA-32

i386Intel x86 - 32-bitIntel x86 32-bit
In 1985, Intel released the 32-bit 80386 (later known as i386) which gradually replaced the earlier 16-bit chips in computers (although typically not in embedded systems) during the following years; this extended programming model was originally referred to as the i386 architecture (like its first implementation) but Intel later dubbed it IA-32 when introducing its (unrelated) IA-64 architecture.
IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386 ) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, designed by Intel and first implemented in the 80386 microprocessor in 1985.

Intel iAPX 432

iAPX 432iAPX432Intel 432
A few years after the introduction of the 8086 and 8088, Intel added some complexity to its naming scheme and terminology as the "iAPX" of the ambitious but ill-fated Intel iAPX 432 processor was tried on the more successful 8086 family of chips, applied as a kind of system-level prefix.
Unlike the 8086, which was designed the following year as a successor to the 8080, the iAPX 432 was a radical departure from Intel's previous designs meant for a different market niche, and completely unrelated to the 8080 or x86 product lines.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM; at the high end, x86 continues to dominate compute-intensive workstation and cloud computing segments.
The CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants.

Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market

before the PC-compatible market startedclosely emulated IBM hardwareclosely emulated IBM's hardware
The term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility, as this implies a multitude of other computer hardware; embedded systems, as well as general-purpose computers, used x86 chips [[Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market#Before the IBM PC's introduction|before the PC-compatible market started]], some of them before the IBM PC (1981) itself.
The ones that used Intel x86 processors often used the generic, non-IBM-compatible specific version of MS-DOS or CP/M-86, just as 8-bit systems with an Intel 8080 compatible CPU normally used CP/M.

Pentium Pro

Intel Pentium ProPentium Pro 256KPentium Pro processors
Physical Address Extension or PAE was first added in the Intel Pentium Pro, and later by AMD in the Athlon processors, to allow up to 64 GB of RAM to be addressed.
The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor developed and manufactured by Intel introduced in November 1, 1995.

VIA Technologies

VIAVIA PadLockVIA Centaur
The architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA Technologies and many other companies; there are also open implementations, such as the Zet SoC platform (currently inactive).
That same year, VIA acquired Centaur Technology from Integrated Device Technology, marking its entry into the x86 microprocessor market.

Laptop

laptop computerlaptopsnotebook computer
As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM; at the high end, x86 continues to dominate compute-intensive workstation and cloud computing segments.
2-in-1s are distinguished from mainstream tablets as they feature an x86-architecture CPU (typically a low- or ultra-low-voltage model), such as the Intel Core i5, run a full-featured desktop OS like Windows 10, and have a number of typical laptop I/O ports, such as USB 3 and Mini DisplayPort.

Zet (hardware)

ZetZet SoC
The architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA Technologies and many other companies; there are also open implementations, such as the Zet SoC platform (currently inactive).
Zet is a clone x86 processor where its machine code compatible with x86 processors developed as an effort to make open-hardware processor.

Tablet computer

tabletstabletTablet PC
As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM; at the high end, x86 continues to dominate compute-intensive workstation and cloud computing segments.
The devices were manufactured by several manufacturers, based on a mix of: x86, MIPS, ARM, and SuperH hardware.

Pentium III

Intel Pentium IIICoppermineKatmai
With the Pentium III, Intel added a 32-bit Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) control/status register (MXCSR) and eight 128-bit SSE floating point registers (XMM0 to XMM7).
The Pentium III (marketed as Intel Pentium III Processor, informally PIII) brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26, 1999.

Athlon

Athlon XPAMD AthlonAthlon MP
AMD later managed to establish itself as a serious contender with the K6 set of processors, which gave way to the very successful Athlon and Opteron.
Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

AMD K6-2

K6-2AMD K6-2 266K6-2+
The K6-2 is an x86 microprocessor introduced by AMD on May 28, 1998, and available in speeds ranging from 266 to 550 MHz.

3DNow!

Enhanced 3DNow!3DNow! extensionsExtended MMX
3DNow! is an extension to the x86 instruction set developed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

AMD K6-III

K6-IIIK6-III+AMD K6 3D
The K6-III (code name: "Sharptooth") was an x86 microprocessor line manufactured by AMD that launched on February 22, 1999 in 400 and 450 MHz models.

TOP500

Top 500fastest supercomputersTOP-500
Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers, and is also used in midrange computers, workstations, servers and most new supercomputer clusters of the TOP500 list.
Before the ascendancy of 32-bit x86 and later 64-bit x86-64 in the early 2000s, a variety of RISC processor families made up most TOP500 supercomputers, including RISC architectures such as SPARC, MIPS, PA-RISC, and Alpha.

Pentium II

DeschutesIntel Pentium IIKlamath
The Pentium II brand refers to Intel's sixth-generation microarchitecture ("P6") and x86-compatible microprocessors introduced on May 7, 1997.