XMPP

A simple XMPP network with the servers jabber.org and draugr.de. Green clients are online, yellow clients are writing each other and small green subclients are the resources of one user. The brown network is not connected to the internet. The server draugr.de is connected to other IM services (ICQ, AIM and other) via XMPP transports.
A standard JID
File transfer options in a chat in Conversations, an XMPP client for Android
Alice sends a message through the XMPP net to the ICQ transport. The message is next routed to Bob via the ICQ network.
Buddy list and a multi-user chat in Spark
Jabber logo

Open communication protocol designed for instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance.

- XMPP

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XML

Markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data.

XML also provides the base language for communication protocols such as SOAP and XMPP.

Instant messaging

Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users (often using a contact list also known as a "buddy list" or "friend list"), and can be standalone applications or integrated into e.g. a wider social media platform, or a website where it can for instance be used for conversational commerce.

Instant messengers by protocol
A buddy list on Pidgin
2014 recreation screenshot of the original Talkomatic program, released in 1973, on the PLATO system (on an orange plasma display).
Command-line Unix "talk", using a split screen user interface, was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s.
BlackBerry Messenger
Facebook Chat, example of IM through a wider social network that became popular in the late 2000s
Pidgin's tabbed chat window in Linux
A user of a mobile device communicating with an instant messenger rather than SMS

They are normally centralised networks run by the servers of the platform's operators, unlike peer-to-peer protocols like XMPP.

Voice over IP

Method and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

Example of residential network including VoIP
Asterisk-based PBX for small business

Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP), instant messaging, presence information, and contact list maintenance

AIM (software)

Instant messaging and presence computer program created by AOL, which used the proprietary OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol to allow registered users to communicate in real time.

Windows version of AIM (2013 release)
Windows version of AIM (2013 release)
AIM version 4.7 (released 2001)
AIM version 6.8 (released 2008)
The "Running Man"

In January 2008, AOL introduced experimental Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) support for AIM, allowing AIM users to communicate using the standardized, open-source XMPP.

Windows Live Messenger

Discontinued cross-platform instant-messaging client developed by Microsoft.

Windows Live Messenger, c. 2011
Windows Live Messenger, c. 2011
MSN Messenger logo, 1999–2006
MSN Messenger 1.0
MSN Messenger 4.6
Windows Live Messenger 8.0
Windows Live Messenger Companion
Messenger Mobile WAP version
MSN Messenger on MSN TV 2
Windows Live Messenger running on an S60 Platform device.

In a presentation to the Georgia Institute of Technology's IEEE Student Branch, Microsoft employee Andrew Jenks reported that the Messenger team had been working on multi-person audio/video chat, and they are also attempting to create interoperability with AIM/XMPP/ICQ.

Internet Relay Chat

"IRC" redirects here.

The first IRC server, tolsun.oulu.fi, a Sun-3 server on display near the University of Oulu computer centre
A screenshot of HexChat, an IRC client for GTK environments
Irssi, a text-based IRC client
Scheme of an IRC network with normal clients (green), bots (blue) and bouncers (orange)

After its golden era during the 1990s and early 2000s (240,000 users on QuakeNet in 2004), IRC has seen a significant decline, losing around 60% of users between 2003 and 2012, with users moving to newer social media platforms like Facebook or Twitter, but also to open platforms like XMPP which was developed in 1999.

Cisco

American multinational technology conglomerate corporation headquartered in San Jose, California.

Cisco's first router, the Advanced Gateway Server (AGS) router (1986)
John T. Chambers led Cisco as its CEO between 1995 and 2015. (Pictured at 2010 World Economic Forum, in Davos, Switzerland).
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger at Cisco, 2010.
Former Portuguese President Cavaco Silva, former Cisco CEO John Chambers and Cisco Senior Director of Innovation Helder Antunes, during the 2011 presidential visit to the US.
CloudLock, a Cisco cloud computing security subsidiary.
A Cisco 8851 IP Phone
Cisco headquarters in the North San Jose Innovation District
In 2010, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton awarded Cisco the Secretary of State's Award for Corporate Excellence, which was presented in Jerusalem by Ambassador James B. Cunningham to Cisco Senior Manager Zika Abzuk.
Cisco Live 2007 in Anaheim, California. Cisco Live is the company's annual exposition and conference.

Cisco specializes in specific tech markets, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), domain security, videoconferencing, and energy management with leading products including Webex, OpenDNS, Jabber, Duo Security, and Jasper.

Federation (information technology)

Group of computing or network providers agreeing upon standards of operation in a collective fashion.

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One could not send messages from GTalk accounts or XMPP (which Google/GTalk is federated with—XMPP lingo for federation is s2s, which Facebook and MSN Live's implementations do not support ) to AIM screen names, nor vice versa.

Presence information

Status indicator that conveys ability and willingness of a potential communication partner—for example a user—to communicate.

Example of Presence Information

The XML-based XMPP or Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol was designed and is currently maintained by the XMPP Standards Foundation.

Open standard

Standard that is openly accessible and usable by anyone.

Data2Dome logo

XMPP - an open protocol for near-real-time instant messaging (IM) and presence information (a.k.a. buddy lists)