Xenophon

Xen.Xenoph.Xenophon of Lampsacus
Xenophon of Athens (, Xenophōn; c. 431 – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.wikipedia
842 Related Articles

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
431 – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon.

Ten Thousand

10,000 Greeks10,000 Greek mercenaries13,000 Greek mercenaries
As a soldier, Xenophon became commander of the Ten Thousand at about 30, with noted military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge saying of him, “the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), Xenophon participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history.
Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401–399 BC) was recorded by Xenophon (one of their leaders) in his work The Anabasis.

Anabasis (Xenophon)

AnabasisThe AnabasisAnabasis'' (Xenophon)
As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), Xenophon participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history.
Anabasis ( ; an "expedition up from") is the most famous book of the Ancient Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.

Historian

historiansamateur historianart historian
431 – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis.

Apology (Xenophon)

ApologyApology of Socrates to the JuryApologia
Like Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon is an authority on Socrates, about whom he wrote several books of dialogues (the Memorabilia) and an Apology of Socrates to the Jury, which recounts the philosopher's trial in 399 BC.
The Apology of Socrates to the Jury, by Xenophon of Athens, is a Socratic dialogue about the legal defence that the philosopher Socrates presented at his trial for the moral corruption of Athenian youth; and for asebeia (impiety) against the pantheon of Athens; judged guilty, Socrates was sentenced to death.

Cyrus the Younger

CyrusKourosh (Cyrus) the Younger
As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), Xenophon participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history.
The history of Cyrus and of the retreat of his Greek mercenaries is told by Xenophon in his Anabasis.

Memorabilia (Xenophon)

MemorabiliaConversations of Socratesmemoir of Socrates
Like Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon is an authority on Socrates, about whom he wrote several books of dialogues (the Memorabilia) and an Apology of Socrates to the Jury, which recounts the philosopher's trial in 399 BC.
Memorabilia (original title in Greek: Ἀπομνημονεύματα, Apomnemoneumata) is a collection of Socratic dialogues by Xenophon, a student of Socrates.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
Like Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon is an authority on Socrates, about whom he wrote several books of dialogues (the Memorabilia) and an Apology of Socrates to the Jury, which recounts the philosopher's trial in 399 BC.
But in a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon much younger than Plato.

Agesilaus II

AgesilausAgésilasKing Agesilaus
His pro-oligarchic politics, military service under Spartan generals, in the Persian campaign and elsewhere, and his friendship with King Agesilaus II endeared Xenophon to the Spartans.
Agesilaus was greatly admired by his friend, the historian Xenophon, who wrote a minor work about him titled Agesilaus.

Artaxerxes II of Persia

Artaxerxes IIArtaxerxesArtaxerxes II Mnemon
As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), Xenophon participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history.
(The Greek historian Xenophon would later recount this battle in the Anabasis, focusing on the struggle of the now-stranded Greek mercenaries to return home.)

Trial of Socrates

trialdeath of Socratestrial for impiety and corruption
Like Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon is an authority on Socrates, about whom he wrote several books of dialogues (the Memorabilia) and an Apology of Socrates to the Jury, which recounts the philosopher's trial in 399 BC.
Primary-source accounts of the trial and execution of Socrates are the Apology of Socrates by Plato and the Apology of Socrates to the Jury by Xenophon of Athens, who had been his student; contemporary interpretations include The Trial of Socrates (1988) by the journalist I. F. Stone, and Why Socrates Died: Dispelling the Myths (2009) by the Classics scholar Robin Waterfield.

History of the Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian WarThe Peloponnesian Waraccount
As a historian, Xenophon is known for recording the history of his time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, which covered the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), thus representing a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
For example, Xenophon wrote his Hellenica as a continuation of Thucydides' work, beginning at the exact moment that Thucydides' History leaves off.

Thucydides

Thuc.Thucydideanthe historian of the same name
As a historian, Xenophon is known for recording the history of his time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, which covered the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), thus representing a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
Readers in antiquity often placed the continuation of the stylistic legacy of the History in the writings of Thucydides' putative intellectual successor Xenophon.

Agesilaus (Xenophon)

Agesilaus
Some of his works have a pro–Spartan bias, especially the royal biography Agesilaus and the Constitution of the Spartans.
Agesilaus is a minor work by Xenophon.

Pythia

Delphic OracleoracleOracle at Delphi
Xenophon writes that he had asked the veteran Socrates for advice on whether to go with Cyrus, and that Socrates referred him to the divinely inspired Pythia.
Authors who mention the oracle include Aeschylus, Aristotle, Clement of Alexandria, Diodorus, Diogenes, Euripides, Herodotus, Julian, Justin, Livy, Lucan, Nepos, Ovid, Pausanias, Pindar, Plato, Plutarch, Sophocles, Strabo, Thucydides and Xenophon.

Attic Greek

AtticAttic dialectClassical Attic
Xenophon's works span several genres and are written in plain-language Attic Greek, for which reason they serve as translation exercises for contemporary students of the Ancient Greek language.
The first extensive works of literature in Attic are the plays of the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes dating from the 5th century BC. The military exploits of the Athenians led to some universally read and admired history, as found in the works of Thucydides and Xenophon.

Battle of Cunaxa

CunaxaEgypt regains independence
The army of Cyrus met the army of Artaxerxes II in the Battle of Cunaxa.
The main source is Xenophon, a Greek soldier and eyewitness.

Tarsus, Mersin

Tarsusof TarsusLady of Tarsus
At Tarsus the soldiers became aware of Cyrus's plans to depose the king, and as a result, refused to continue (Anabasis 1.3.1).
Indeed, Xenophon records that in 401 BC, when Cyrus the Younger marched against Babylon, the city was governed by King Syennesis in the name of the Persian monarch.

Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers

LivesLives of the Eminent PhilosophersLife of Epicurus
In the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, Diogenes Laërtius observed that, as a writer, Xenophon of Athens was known as the “Attic Muse”, for the sweetness of his diction (2.6).

Trabzon

TrebizondTrapezusafter 1461
Soon after, Xenophon's men reached Trapezus on the coast of the Black Sea (Anabasis 4.8.22).
When Xenophon and the Ten Thousand mercenaries were fighting their way out of Persia, the first Greek city they reached was Trebizond (Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.5.10).

Epaminondas

Epaminondas’
This was among the first attacks in depth ever made, 23 years after Delium and 30 years before Epaminondas’ more famous use of it at Leuctra.
The period of Greek history from 411–362 BC is primarily attested by the historian Xenophon, who evidently saw his work as continuation of Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War.

Cyropaedia

biography of Cyrus the GreatCyropaedeiaCyropédie
However, certain works of Xenophon, in particular the Cyropaedia, seem to show his oligarchic politics.
It was written around 370 BC by the Athenian gentleman-soldier, and student of Socrates, Xenophon.

Sparta

SpartanSpartansLacedaemonians
Despite being born an Athenian citizen, Xenophon was also associated with Sparta, the traditional enemy of Athens.
The Athenian general Xenophon, for example, sent his two sons to Sparta as trophimoi.

Tissaphernes

Under the pretext of fighting Tissaphernes, the Persian satrap of Ionia, Cyrus assembled a massive army composed of native Persian soldiers, but also a large number of Greeks.
In the spring of 401 BC, Cyrus united all his forces into an army, which now included Xenophon's "Ten Thousand", and advanced from Sardis without announcing the object of his expedition.

Peloponnesian War

Second Peloponnesian WarArchidamian WarPeloponnesian
As a historian, Xenophon is known for recording the history of his time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, which covered the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), thus representing a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
Xenophon, Hellenica