Xhosa Wars

frontier wars9th Frontier WarXhosa War9th Xhosa WarEighth Xhosa War8th Cape Frontier WarSixth Xhosa War9th Cape Frontier WarNinth Xhosa WarSeventh Xhosa War
The Xhosa Wars (also known as the Cape Frontier Wars, or Africa's 100 Years War) were a series of nine wars or flare-ups (from 1779 to 1879) between the Xhosa Kingdom and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.wikipedia
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Xhosa people

XhosaamaXhosaXhosa nation
The Xhosa Wars (also known as the Cape Frontier Wars, or Africa's 100 Years War) were a series of nine wars or flare-ups (from 1779 to 1879) between the Xhosa Kingdom and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa. By the second half of the 18th century, Europeans, predominantly trekboers, moved eastward up the coast and encountered the Xhosa in the region of the Great Fish River.
Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812 the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War.

Makhanda (prophet)

MakanaMakhandaMokana
The Xhosa prophet-chief Maqana Nxele (or Makana) emerged at this time and promised “to turn bullets into water.” Under the command of Mdushane, AmaNdlambe's son, Maqana led a 10,000 Xhosa force attack (22 April 1819) on Grahamstown, which was held by 350 troops.
Makhanda (also spelled Makana) who was also known as Nxele ("the left-handed") (died 25 December 1819) was a Xhosa warrior, war doctor, philosopher and prophet who, during the Xhosa Wars, instigated an attack against the British garrison at Grahamstown, South Africa.

Battle of Grahamstown

Grahamstown
The Xhosa prophet-chief Maqana Nxele (or Makana) emerged at this time and promised “to turn bullets into water.” Under the command of Mdushane, AmaNdlambe's son, Maqana led a 10,000 Xhosa force attack (22 April 1819) on Grahamstown, which was held by 350 troops.
The Battle of Grahamstown took place on 22 April 1819, during the 5th Xhosa War, at the frontier settlement of Grahamstown in what is now the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

Cape Colony

Cape of Good HopeCapeGovernor of the Cape of Good Hope
The Dutch East India Company, which was responsible for what is referred to as "founding" several urban areas, like towns and cities in already populated areas of the west of South Africa, continually changed the boundaries in the Cape Colony, establishing the Great Fish River as the eastern frontier in 1778.
At the same time, the long series of border wars fought against the Xhosa people of the Cape's eastern frontier finally died down when the Xhosa partook in a mass destruction of their own crops and cattle, in the belief that this would cause their spirits to appear and defeat the whites.

Maqoma

Maqoma kaNgqika
On 11 December 1834, a Cape government commando party killed a chief of high rank, incensing the Xhosa: an army of 10,000 men, led by Maqoma, a brother of the chief who had been killed, swept across the frontier into the Cape Colony, pillaged and burned the homesteads and killed all who resisted.
Amongst the greatest of Xhosa military commanders, he played a major part in the Sixth and Eighth Xhosa Wars.

Boer

Boerstrekboerswhite farmers
The First Xhosa War broke out in 1779 between Boer frontiersmen and the Xhosa.
The year which witnessed the emancipation of the slaves and the creation of the first treaty state also saw the beginning of another disastrous Frontier war.

Ngqika people

NgqikaGaikaGaikas
An issue of overcrowding brought on a civil war between the Ngqika (royal clan of the Rharhabe Xhosa) and the Gcaleka Xhosa (those that remained in their homeland).
It would be years before the child would rule his people who fought in the Xhosa Wars following the invasion of the British and Dutch settlers.

Andries Stockenström

Sir Andries StockenströmStockenströmSir Andries Stockenström (1st Baronet)
In the aftermath of the previous frontier war, the new lieutenant-governor of the Eastern Province, Andries Stockenström, instituted a completely new border policy.
In the nineteenth century, the Cape frontier was afflicted by a recurring series of Frontier Wars, between the Cape Colony and the British Empire on the one side, and the Xhosa chiefs on the other.

Robben Island

Isle RobinRobbenRobben Island Channel
Maqana was eventually captured and imprisoned on Robben Island.
After a failed uprising at Grahamstown in 1819, the fifth of the Xhosa Wars, the British colonial government sentenced African leader Makanda Nxele to life imprisonment on the island.

Richard Southey (colonial administrator)

Richard SoutheySir Richard Southey
Immediately, a soldier named George Southey (brother of colonial administrator Sir Richard Southey) came up behind Hintsa and shot him in the back of the head; furthermore, Hintsa's ears were cut off after his death.
Southey began his career as an officer during the Frontier Wars of the Eastern Cape.

Khoikhoi

HottentotsHottentotKhoi
Discontented Khoikhoi then revolted, joined with the Xhosa in the Zuurveld, and started attacking white farms, reaching Oudtshoor by July 1799.
The Khoi were known at the time for being very good marksmen, and were often invaluable allies of the Cape Colony in its frontier wars with the neighbouring Xhosa.

Great Fish River

Fish RiverFishGreat Fish
The Dutch East India Company, which was responsible for what is referred to as "founding" several urban areas, like towns and cities in already populated areas of the west of South Africa, continually changed the boundaries in the Cape Colony, establishing the Great Fish River as the eastern frontier in 1778. By the second half of the 18th century, Europeans, predominantly trekboers, moved eastward up the coast and encountered the Xhosa in the region of the Great Fish River.
During the 19th century, the river formed the border of the Cape Colony and was hotly contested during the Xhosa Wars of 1779 to 1878 between the Xhosa nation on the one side and the Dutch farmers and the 1820 Settlers from England on the other, and in 1835, the Fingo tribe was permitted to settle on the river's banks.

Mgolombane Sandile

SandileKing Mgolombane Sandile
Chief Mgolombane Sandile led the Ngqika people in the Seventh Frontier War (1846–47), Eighth Frontier War (1850–53) and the Ninth Frontier War (1877–78), in which he was killed.
A dynamic and charismatic chief, he led the Xhosa armies in several of the Cape-Xhosa Frontier Wars.

Piet Retief

Retief
Boer commandos mobilised under Piet Retief and inflicted a defeat on the Xhosa in the Winterberg Mountains in the north.
These prompted the 6th Cape Frontier War.

John Charles Molteno

MoltenoJohn MoltenoSir John Molteno
Paramount Chief Sarhili and his generals agreed to meet Stockenström (with his commandants Groepe, Molteno and Brownlee), unarmed, on a nearby mountain ridge.
Soon afterwards the bereaved Molteno left his estate and joined a Boer Commando that was heading for the frontier mountains to fight in the 1846 Amatola War.

Robert Godlonton

Moral Bob" GodlontonRobert “Moral Bob” Godlonton
The treaty system began to unravel as the settlers gained a determined leader and spokesman in the form of Robert Godlonton, who led a large colonist movement to dismantle Stockenström's system and allow seizure of Xhosa lands.
He took an active role in the frontier wars as member of the board of defence and, although never elected a municipal commissioner, he diligently attended town and committee meetings in the area.

Benjamin D'Urban

Sir Benjamin d'Urban Colonel '''Sir Benjamin D'UrbanGovernor D' Urban
The British governor, Sir Benjamin d'Urban mustered the combined forces under Colonel Sir Harry Smith, who reached Grahamstown on 6 January 1835, six days after news of the uprising had reached Cape Town.
His administration was complicated by the exodus of Dutch farmers to the far north and east (known as the Great Trek) and the outbreak of the Cape Frontier Wars of (1834–1835) created by incursions of Bantu-speaking Xhosa peoples.

Fort White, Eastern Cape

Fort White
The party was forced to retreat to Fort White, under heavy fire from the Xhosa, having sustained forty-two casualties.
Fort White was established in 1835 as a base for the British army during the Xhosa Wars.

Charles Brownlee

Brownlee
Paramount Chief Sarhili and his generals agreed to meet Stockenström (with his commandants Groepe, Molteno and Brownlee), unarmed, on a nearby mountain ridge.
In the ongoing frontier wars that afflicted the vanguard of British expansion in southern Africa, Brownlee played a difficult and sometimes very awkward role as a peacemaker and cultural intermediary - sympathetic to the Xhosa grievances but unable to restrain British expansion.

Cape Mounted Riflemen

Frontier Armed and Mounted PoliceCape Mounted Riflemen & VolunteersCape Regiment
Harry Smith finally fought his way out of Fort Cox with the help of the local Cape Mounted Riflemen, but found that he had alienated most of his local allies.
The regiment had its headquarters at Simonstown and formed a key component of the Cape's frontier defences, repeatedly distinguishing itself in the early frontier wars.

King William's Town

King WilliamstownKing William TownMidnigi
A site for the seat of province's government was selected and named King William’s Town.
Founded by Sir Benjamin d'Urban in May 1835 during the Xhosa War of that year, the town is named after William IV.

Christian Groepe

Groepe
Paramount Chief Sarhili and his generals agreed to meet Stockenström (with his commandants Groepe, Molteno and Brownlee), unarmed, on a nearby mountain ridge.
Commandant Groepe fought in the frontier wars alongside Andries Stockenstrom, John Molteno and Andries Botha.

Henry Somerset (British Army officer)

Henry SomersetGeneral SomersetSir Henry Somerset
The Xhosa army then marched on Grahamstown itself, but was held up when a sizable army of Ndlambe Xhosa were defeated on 7 June 1846 by General Somerset on the Gwangu, a few miles from Fort Peddie.
Soon after his marriage, Somerset proceeded to the Cape Colony, where his father was governor, and served with the Cape Mounted Rifles throughout the Xhosa Wars.

British Kaffraria

Queen Adelaide ProvinceKaffrariaProvince of Queen Adelaide
The terms dictated that all the country from the Cape's prior frontier, the Keiskamma River, as far as the Great Kei River was annexed as the British "Queen Adelaide Province", and its inhabitants declared British subjects.
After the 6th Frontier War ("Hintsa's War"), on 10 May 1835, the area was seized by the British Governor Sir Benjamin d'Urban, and annexed to the Cape Colony as Queen Adelaide Province. It was established when the Xhosa people were driven across the Kei River and a new buffer zone was established with white settlers maintaining the new order.

Gansbaai

Dyer IslandDyer Island, South AfricaGansbaai, Western Cape, ZA
In 1852, HMS Birkenhead was wrecked at Gansbaai while bringing reinforcements to the war at the request of Sir Harry Smith.
A barely visible rock 2 km from Danger Point (now aptly called "Birkenhead Rock") was fatal for the troopship carrying young Welsh and Scottish soldiers and their officers and family on their way to Eastern Cape to fight the Xhosa.