Xianbei

Xianbei languageXianbicolonised by Turkic peopleHsien-peiSibes(XianbeiSienpiXianbei (Särbi)Xianbei confederation
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China.wikipedia
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Mongolia

MongolRepublic of MongoliaMongolian
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China.
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu.
The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation.

Five Barbarians

Wu HuHuFive Barbarian
As the Xianbei Murong, Tuoba and Duan tribes were one of the Five Barbarians who were vassals of the Han Chinese Western Jin and Eastern Jin dynasties, they took part in the Uprising of the Five Barbarians as allies of the Han Chinese Eastern Jin against the other four barbarians, the Xiongnu, Jie, Di and Qiang.
The peoples categorized as the Five Barbarians were the Xiongnu, Jie, Xianbei, Di, and Qiang.

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNei MongolInner
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. By 190, the Xianbei had split into three groups with Kuitou ruling in Inner Mongolia, Kebineng in northern Shanxi, and Suli and Mijia in northern Liaodong.
Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south, and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol of the north.

Donghu people

DonghuHuEastern Barbarians
They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC.
The Dōnghú later divided into the Wuhuan in the Yan Mountains and Xianbei in the Greater Khingan Range, the latter of which are the origin of the Khitan and Mongols.

Uprising of the Five Barbarians

Wu Hu uprisingimmigrationwas overthrown
As the Xianbei Murong, Tuoba and Duan tribes were one of the Five Barbarians who were vassals of the Han Chinese Western Jin and Eastern Jin dynasties, they took part in the Uprising of the Five Barbarians as allies of the Han Chinese Eastern Jin against the other four barbarians, the Xiongnu, Jie, Di and Qiang.
The fifth group, the Xianbei in the north, were allied to the Western Jin and later Eastern Jin against the other four barbarians until turning on the Chinese much later.

Xianbei state

XianbeiXianbei empireXianbei people
However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.
Like most ancient peoples known through Chinese historiography, the ethnic makeup of the Xianbei is unclear.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Xianbei later founded their own states and reunited northern China as the Northern Wei.
The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture.

Wuhuan

Wuhuan tribesWuwan
They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. After Cao Cao defeated the Wuhuan at the Battle of White Wolf Mountain in 207, Budugen and Fuluohan paid tribute to him.
The northern Donghu became the Xianbei while the southern Donghu living around modern Liaoning became the Wuhuan.

Northeast China

NortheastNortheastern Chinanortheastern
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China.
Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Xianbei, and Mohe have risen to power in the Northeast.

Dingling

ChileTing-lingDinlin
In 85, the Xianbei secured an alliance with the Dingling and Southern Xiongnu.
They are assumed to have been an early Proto-Turkic-speaking people, whose original constituents mainly assimilated into the Xiongnu and Xianbei groups.

Di (Five Barbarians)

DiDi peopleDi tribes
As the Xianbei Murong, Tuoba and Duan tribes were one of the Five Barbarians who were vassals of the Han Chinese Western Jin and Eastern Jin dynasties, they took part in the Uprising of the Five Barbarians as allies of the Han Chinese Eastern Jin against the other four barbarians, the Xiongnu, Jie, Di and Qiang.
During the Jin dynasty, the five semi-nomadic tribes of Xiongnu, Jie, Xianbei, Di, and Qiang conquered northern China.

Youliu

The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu.
He succeeded Punu at an uncertain date and was killed by the Xianbei in 91 AD.

Kebineng

By 190, the Xianbei had split into three groups with Kuitou ruling in Inner Mongolia, Kebineng in northern Shanxi, and Suli and Mijia in northern Liaodong.
Kebineng (died 235) was a Xianbei chieftain who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China.

Former Qin

FormerFormer Qin dynasty
The Xianbei were at one point all defeated and conquered by the Di Former Qin empire before it fell apart at the Battle of Fei River at the hands of the Eastern Jin.
One fragment, at present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling.

Shiwei people

Shiwei
This same root might be the origin of the related Shiwei and Sibe people.
Chinese dynastic histories describe the Shiwei as somewhat related to the Khitan, who were of Xianbei origin.

Budugen

In 205, Kuitou's brothers Budugen and Fuluohan succeeded him.
Budugen (died 233) was a Xianbei chieftain who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China.

Murong

MùróngMurong tribeMurong Xianbei
The Murong and Duan tribes became vassals of the Sima clan. The Xianbei tribes Tuoba, Murong and Duan submitted to the Western Jin dynasty as vassals, the Tuoba were made Dukes of Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms), the Murong were made Dukes of Liaodong, and the Duan were made Dukes of Liaoxi.
Murong or Muren refers to an ethnic Xianbei tribe who are a Mongolic people attested from the time of Tanshihuai (reigned 156-181).

Modu Chanyu

Modu ShanyuModuMaodun
When the Donghu "Eastern Barbarians" were defeated by Modu Chanyu around 208 BC, the Donghu splintered into the Xianbei and Wuhuan.
By 208 BCE, the Donghu had been defeated and their remnants split into the Xianbei and Wuhuan tribes.

Battle of White Wolf Mountain

a campaignLoubana successful campaign
After Cao Cao defeated the Wuhuan at the Battle of White Wolf Mountain in 207, Budugen and Fuluohan paid tribute to him.
The victory attained by Cao Cao dashed the hopes of a Wuhuan dominion, and the Wuhuan eventually became weakened, lost importance, and were gradually absorbed into China or the Xianbei tribes.

Yuwen

YǔwénYuwen XianbeiYuwen tribe
The Yuwen tribe settled between the Luan River and Liucheng.
The Yuwen is a Chinese compound surname originated from a pre-state clan of Xianbei ethnicity of Xiongnu origin during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China, until its destruction by Former Yan's prince Murong Huang in 345.

Shanxi

Shanxi ProvinceShansiShangxi
By 190, the Xianbei had split into three groups with Kuitou ruling in Inner Mongolia, Kebineng in northern Shanxi, and Suli and Mijia in northern Liaodong.
They were followed by Northern Wei (386–534), a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datong in northern Shanxi, and which went on to rule nearly all of northern China.

Tuoba

Tuoba clanTuòbáTabgach
The Xianbei tribes Tuoba, Murong and Duan submitted to the Western Jin dynasty as vassals, the Tuoba were made Dukes of Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms), the Murong were made Dukes of Liaodong, and the Duan were made Dukes of Liaoxi.
The Tuoba (Middle Chinese: thak bɛt) also known as the Taugast or Tabgach (Tabgaç), was a Xianbei clan in ancient China.

Duan tribe

DuanDuan (tribe)
The Murong and Duan tribes became vassals of the Sima clan.
The Duan was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.

Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms)

DaiKingdom of DaiDai kingdom
The Xianbei tribes Tuoba, Murong and Duan submitted to the Western Jin dynasty as vassals, the Tuoba were made Dukes of Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms), the Murong were made Dukes of Liaodong, and the Duan were made Dukes of Liaoxi.
Dai, also formerly spelled Tai, was a state of the Xianbei clan of Tuoba, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.